Analytical journalism in Russia
Analytical genres are a wide canvas of facts that are interpreted, summarized, serve as material for the formulation of a particular problem and its comprehensive consideration and interpretation. Analytical genres include: correspondence, article, review review. Correspondence analyzes a group of facts. This is done with the help of a description of the facts, their analysis and relevant conclusions. It is very important examples, efficiency, specificity of the topic, a clear address. Article - this is a generalization and analysis of facts and phenomena. If in correspondence events are considered from the particular to the general, then in the article everything happens the opposite - from the general to the particular. The article takes facts on a global scale, analyzes them, raising them to scientifically based conclusions.
Analytical genres deal with interpretive information, and their methods are focused on the basic logical operations: induction and deduction, establishing causal relationships, synthesis, analysis (as a consideration from different angles, decomposition into details and details, correlation of the general with the particular); and general scientific procedures: systematization, classification, grouping, typology, etc.
The strategy of qualitative analysis involves the discovery of some general patterns in various phenomena of reality, as well as the elucidation of causal relationships between heterogeneous facts. For this purpose, the data available to the journalist are classified and grouped according to certain criteria and criteria.
In any informational message and a serious essay, there should be a certain amount of analysis woven into the main fabric of the narration or written separately. But sometimes the scale or importance of an event is such that they require purely analytical articles. These are articles that literally anatomize events, topics, issues and developments in an attempt to explain what is happening or will be happening next. These articles should also try to explain the significance of the events and their context.
They should not be just a set of judgments. Similarly, it is impossible that this was the old news, warmed up and served with a sauce of several opinions. They should contain fresh information and a fresh look at the event. The emphasis should be on interpretation and clarification.
The need for articles-interpretations has increased, especially recently, when people first learn the news on the radio or on television. In addition to writing journalists generally digging deeper than radio and television broadcasters, newspapers should also explain the meaning of events and phenomena. The commentary should report on new interpretations and attitudes — giving new meaning to the meaning of things.
Structural organization of analytical genres
The complexity of the structural organization of analytical genres lies in the fact that a journalist, as a rule, deals with a large group of facts that, at the initial stage of their processing, require careful selection, systematization, grouping and classification for various reasons, finding causal relationships between them and etc. It is at this stage of the creative process that the main issues related to the unified organization of the facts into the structural fabric of the work are solved. Integrity can be achieved with a certain concept, idea or thought. The journalist first of all needs to identify the most essential facts for analysis, determine the key points of the main problem and choose the method of presenting factual data. After that, it becomes possible to determine the appropriate proportions between the different parts of the text.
It is important not just to present the facts to the reader, but to illustrate them in the context of the problem that the journalist is trying to address.
Having determined the range of significant questions, the journalist not only sets the movement of his thoughts, but also accordingly builds the logic of further reasoning. For this purpose, "theses" and "antitheses" are being put forward, requiring extensive and reasoned proof.
An important place in the structure of the article is argumentation. It is through it that the logic of the author's reasoning can be traced. Argumentation is understood as either bringing logical arguments to substantiate any position, i.e. logical process; or reasoning, consisting of a number of conclusions proving the truth or falsity of the thesis; or a combination of a logical process of proof and a psychological process of persuasion. Thus, the arguments, on the one hand, repeat the external course of the author's reasoning, and on the other hand, they perform an important psychological function, convincing readers of the truth of this or that author's statement.
As we see, the structure of the article with necessity reflects the structure of argumentation. The choice of a rhetorical or logical approach to the construction of an article depends on the specific cognitive and communicative goals that the journalist has set himself.
Analytical journalism in Russia
One of the most remarkable features of the domestic media has traditionally been their focus not so much on reporting news as on analysis, research, interpretation of current events, processes, situations. Because of this, the media have developed a fairly effective system of analytical genres. This system is not something once and for all given - it is constantly evolving, adapting to the tasks that confront analytical journalism. Especially noticeable changes have occurred in it in recent years: some well-known genres have been “modified”, and in addition, new stable types of analytical publications have appeared.
In the early 80s. there was a noticeable movement of the report to the analyst. That is, of course, there was also a classic, informational and cognitive report. But back in the 30s. an intergenre form was added to it — the famous reports by A. Koltsov (“Three days in a taxi”, “Seven days in a class”), similar to both essays and articles. After half a century, the works of G. Bocharov, Yu. Rost, V. Chertkov and others stood out already a special kind of reporting - analytical.
In the early 90s. there was a stormy upsurge of classical informative reportage, while the analytical beauty and pride of the largest newspapers seemed to have disappeared. More precisely, he passed (already and outwardly) into an investigation — correspondence, an investigation — an article. Why did this happen? Time has sharply accelerated its course, the events rushed rapidly, leaving no opportunity to think deeply about them. Objects that were not supposed to be noticed before have opened, and reporters rushed into the dark corners of life - to arrange for the reader excursions to the hangouts of drug addicts, salons of palmists, markets for living goods, cellars of morgues. Yes, and the reader himself, tired of the problems, it became more interesting to look from the side, rather than participate in the hunt for thought.
In 1992, the rapid growth of broadcasting organizations in Russia began. Analytical journalism has reached a qualitatively new level of development. There are new information and analytical programs.
In January 1992, the information and analytical weekly Itogi with Yevgeny Kiselyov appeared on the Ostankino channel, which later became broadcast on the NTV channel. In April 1996, two information and analytical programs were broadcast at once - “Zerkalo” on the RTR channel and “19.59” on the ORT channel. At the same time, the information-analytical weekly “Observer” appeared on TV-6, and six months later, on the ORT channel, another Vremya analytical program with presenter Sergey Dorenko appeared. Thus, for the first time in the practice of our television, previously distinguished by the loyalty of channels to each other, the rivalry became direct and merciless.
A new stage in the development of the state and the media came in 1996 during the presidential campaign. Now the media acted as a tool to fight the elections. The information and analytical programs existing at that time in Russia, enjoying particular popularity and trust among the audience, began to pursue the same policy, the essence of which can be reduced to one - B. Yeltsin should remain in power. The “results” of Yevgeny Kiselev, who before the election campaign were considered on domestic television as a benchmark of objectivity and independence, became even more tendentious than the frankly pro-Yeltsi “Zerkalo”.
Independent analytical journalism - the missing link in the democratic process
The survey work on the conversation of the Russian Journal correspondent (www.russ.ru) with well-known Russian experts in the field of analytical journalism (Boris Mezhuyev, deputy editor-in-chief of Cosmopolis magazine; Vitaly Tretyakov, editor-in-chief of Energy Policy magazine; Andrei Kobyakov, deputy editor-in-chief of the Russian Entrepreneur magazine; Maxim Shevchenko, editor-in-chief of the Meaning magazine; Alexander Khramchikhin, head of the analytical department of the Institute for Political and Military Analysis), published in kah forum "Independent analytical journalism."
Analytical journalism as a genre
Analytical journalism is a completely independent field, everything that is not informing about events in a country, and something that contains a pronounced forecast in some problem spectrum. Being on the verge of journalism, analytical journalism is a separate genre. Serious journalism should ideally be analytical.
The typological feature of analytical journalism, as the name implies, is the ability to analytically, i.e. Reflexively approach the stated material, not only communicate the facts, but also analyze them. A more interesting question is about the genre, which can be called “intellectual journalism”, and which is practically not represented in the domestic media. This is journalism, describing and analyzing the life of ideas in modern society, or, using other terms, the functioning of intelligent networks. This kind of specific analytical product in Russia is almost completely absent, which is explained by the influence of narrow-economic analytics in combination with sociology operating with quantitative data. This leads to the fact that the wide reader is better oriented in the economic than in the ideological life of society.
Analytical journalism is the highest style of journalism. Her criteria are universal all over the world. First, it is the quality of the journalist’s intellect, the ability to relate what is happening with the existing problem space, with history. Secondly, the possession of speech. Difficult thoughts should be expressed simply. The journalist does not write for experts. The size of his audience is not limited, and ideally anyone who can read should understand what the journalist wanted to say. Thirdly, the personal courage of a journalist is important, he should not be afraid to go against the authorities, he should not call black white. He can not distort the truth. Fourthly, the most important thing is the availability of space within which a journalist would have free access to information. It is impressive how Western journalists work. For any problem, they constitute a complete space of opinions. After this expert survey, an analytical journalist is able to write on any topic.
Analytical journalism as a format
The division of labor on the line - "informational diaries - analytical weeklies - intellectual monthly" does not add up. Analytical weekly journals are in the best position, among which “Expert” stands out, turned out to be in fact the leader of analytical journalism, largely due to the persistent reluctance to be popularized.
Analytical journalism may be partly present even in the tabloids. But the main place of her stay is still a high-quality publication, no matter on the Internet or on paper. Editions with a lower rhythm, naturally, contain more analytics. Daily television news releases may also contain elements of analytics, although to a lesser extent than weekly information and analytical programs, which are designed to analyze events a priori, and not just retell them.
With the monthly situation is worse. The previous wave, connected with literary heritage, Slavic studies, etc., has already clearly disappeared, and the second breath has not come to the monthly. Therefore, there is a complete lack of new ideas or finance that can support new ideas. “Intellectual monthly” are more expert-academic than analytical, moreover, almost all of them are stewed in their own juice, having practically no influence on the external audience, much less on power. Attempts to develop this infrastructure do not stop, so the process goes. But much will depend on the dynamics of the social environment. If populism succeeds in reaching a coherent political landscape, then there will be publications that will support this or that ideological line. Many have a desire to see such a press.
Analytical journalism as a political factor
According to A. Khramchikhin, political analytical journalism naturally disappeared along with the democratic process. It should be noted that analytical materials do not mean custom-made or propaganda materials disguised as analytics, and even more so “rumors of gossip” that are replacing the analyst at the present time.
Confirmation of the fact of the elimination of analytical journalism is the growing desire of the owners of daily and weekly publications to maximize their depoliticization even in a purely informational way, not to mention the nature of analytics. Explaining this setting by the depoliticization of society, we obviously confuse cause and effect. Agitprop in his Putin variant is actively working on the stupor of the population, which is expressed not least by the word "depoliticization". The population is depoliticized by force and purpose. Accordingly, there is no request for analytics from the public. The government, whose sole purpose today is self-preservation, is not interested in any kind of analytics, especially public one, in principle.
Analytical journalism is by definition connected to politics. Although today there is no direct, direct influence, similar to the influence of Kiselevsky Itogi. Itogi was the height of television analytical journalism and, with its individual plots, exerted some influence on politics. Now there are no such programs. Not to mention the print editions. There are single programs on TV that form a problem field and are already affecting those in power (for example, “However,” Mikhail Leontyev, which is viewed in the highest circles of power).
It can also be noted that in Russia the public “analyst” is still continuing to perform a mainly manipulative function. Deliberately complicated language of popular economic analysts of the 1990s, with a demonstrative disregard for the general reader (although it is also in demand), was intended to show that ordinary people with their everyday ideas and everyday interests cannot understand in the intricacies of modern society. Since the late 1990s, with the expansion of the information space thanks to the Internet, the situation began to change for the better - several qualitative analytical projects appeared on the network.
Analytical journalism as a professional field
Criteria of professionalism - reflexivity (ability not dogmatically, but judiciously to defend one’s position); trust and respect for the reader; competence; and external, at least impartiality. According to B. Mezhuev, “Politiyu” (ROCOR), all analytical products of the European University (G. Golosov, V. Gelman, etc.), the political department of “Expert”, the informational site of political commentary “Politcom. RU".
M. Shevchenko says that the situation with analytical journalism in Russia is difficult, but there are prospects in this area: “There are few analytical journalists. For example, Vitaly Tretyakov; in the publishing house "Kommersant" excellent journalists. Journalists in Izvestia. A number of new names appeared, for example, the Russian Courier. This is very good - intellectual competition is very important in analytical journalism. Ultimately, it allows us to hope that the PR funds will not be enough for everyone, and journalists will simply have to write what they think. ”
A. Kobyakov: “It is hardly possible to control the criteria of professionalism, because they are quite obvious. You can love or dislike someone, but professionalism will always be visible. An example of an analytical journalist is Alexei Pushkov: a bright, responsible attitude to his own word. Maxim Sokolov has long been working in this genre, Mikhail Leontyev, who, however, is more opportunistic, Tatyana Gurova from Expert. There have been attempts by companies to reach the level of a certain analytical standard. Nezavisimaya Gazeta has long been in this capacity. Tretyakov himself has always supported this status of publication. "Expert" passed its peak in 1997-1998. Many earlier good editions began to be "vaporized." Now a lot of interesting things appear on the Internet. In short, everything is very dynamic. "
Analytical journalism as a market
Analytical journalism from an economic point of view is a matter of management. A bright personality should have the talent to sell. The advertiser limits the freedom of the editor and journalist. For analytical journalism, this is doubly true. A good example in this regard is The Economist magazine - here a large circulation is combined with serious expert opinions. This is an international level.
However, in Russia the political demand for analytical journalism is very narrow. Compared to the Western world, where people are socially active, Russia is a rarefied space. At the moment, readers of the political press in Russia - about 10-15 thousand. The consumer of the product is an educated reader, a business elite, and a political elite. The customer is usually business structures, not political structures in the first place, which may explain the one-sidedly economized orientation of analytical journalism and its relative indifference to the intellectual sphere.
Reviews of ideological orientations in Russian society, which appear from time to time, suffer from complete non-analyticity. The positions presented in the analysis are often simply fantastic, while the really existing points of view have a very rational justification, sometimes perfectly developed. Our intellectuals, as a rule, simply ignore the arguments of their opponents - first of all, this refers to the rare attempts of liberals to present a set of ideas from their opponents. The almost universal enthusiasm for the conspiracy-minded type of thinking also plays a negative role - it seems to everyone that publicly spoken words have absolutely no meaning. They hide secret plans and secret designs. As one distinguished journalist said, political science is the science of who pays the money. Of course, taking into account only one - the material - factor and analytical journalism is concentrated around a single question: who paid for this or that publication. The fact that the life of ideas has some autonomy from the material factor is not taken into account, therefore significant segments of society’s life simply elude observers.
Analytical journalism as a medium
There are several intellectual corporations, of which only one has "occupied" the sphere of analytical journalism, still dictating fashion in it. This is a group of right-wing liberals who has recently crystallized around the so-called Serafimov Club, the site Globalrus.ru, the newspaper Izvestia, and similar publications. Journalists working in the same genre in other publications, for example, Yulia Latynina in Novaya Gazeta, are essentially people from the same school. Shake their leadership has not been able to anyone. They formed the canons of the genre - economic centrism, deliberately complicated language, complete indifference to the ideological side of social processes. Popular publications have lost either because of the desire for simplicity at the expense of depth, or because of excessive and inappropriate ideology. The laws of the genre were able to painlessly be overcome only by Expert, who raised the bar primarily thanks to the talent of Alexander Privalov and an excellent department of international politics. “Expert” managed to get out of the rigid framework of economic determinism of the 1990s and speak seriously, for example, about alternative ideological and political currents in the world, about various forks and paradoxes of global politics. And he, of course, set a new level of consideration and discussion of world and domestic policy issues, more adequate for the current turbulent decade.
In addition to the Serafimov Club, there were other attempts to create a club of economic journalists, but very soon they all turned into public relations. As for ideological ideas, they all often undergo changes - Maksim Sokolov began as a liberal radical, now he is, at best, a liberal-statesman. It seems that a certain consolidation of thinking people is happening, reasonable and moderate - the same as on the political background.
Analytical journalism is one of the environments that form the intellectual and political landscape of modern Russia. And, perhaps, one of the criteria for the integrity of the ideological and political field is the ability of “analysts” to see its place in it.