Media creativity: Tutorial. Genre features of journalistic materials
|Genre in French means - genus, species. This is a historically established literary and journalistic form with certain persistent characteristics ... |
... the diversity of which is due to the fact that the works reflect different aspects of reality, have different tasks and purpose.
1. Genre diversity journalism
The nature of the genre is determined not only by the nature of the phenomena, but also by the attitude of the author to him and the task that he sets himself: a poetic or prose narrative, glorification or exposure, and others. It defines the main genres of fiction. In visual arts, the main genres are directly determined by the subject of the image: portrait or landscape, historical or everyday, and others. In music, the specific purpose of this type of work is decisive: a song or dance, a concert or romance, and so on.
A genre in journalism is one of the forms of reflection of an object, a life situation, a fact, one of the forms of the embodiment of a certain idea, thought. At the same time, a creative person within a certain genre always imposes his unique individuality on publicistic material.
The formation of genres was caused by practical need. When the first Russian printed newspaper, Vedomosti, appeared at the beginning of the 18th century, its purpose — to report the latest news — also determined its genre identity — informational character. Some of the materials reported the news in brief form (note), others contained a detailed description of what happened (report) or more emotionally conveyed the most important details of the event (report). Analytical materials in “Vedomosti” have not yet been, - they were formed from a later need to understand the causes of what is happening.
The circle of social problems, influencing the formation of the genre diversity of journalistic materials, dictates changes in already established genres. Genres do not stand still, they are constantly evolving and enriching. Referring to certain specific facts, phenomena, situations of public life, journalism develops specific forms of reflecting social conflicts, based on specific historical conditions, but at the same time preserving a certain stability and continuity. For example, the feuilletons of F.V. Bulgarin and the feuilletons of M.M. Zoshchenko, although they have different socially-oriented directions, but with all their specific historical distinctions belong to the same genre.
A genre is always an organic unity of content and form, where priority always belongs to the content, the idea. Content, the actual documentary content in journalism is important. But it, in turn, determines the problem and the nature, form and volume of journalistic speeches. Therefore, each publication should be considered in the unity of the specific properties of its content and form. But in order to properly understand the genre printing system that has emerged now, one must know the history of the formation of mass media, and the reasons forcing them to develop in this way and not otherwise.
The main reasons for the genre differentiation of journalistic creativity are, firstly, the diversity of objects of reality reflected by journalism, secondly, the main types of objects, thirdly, the diversity of real concrete situations characterizing objects of reality, fourthly, the main types of situations that make up the subject area of journalism and, finally, the diversity of the subject-object characteristics of the reflected reality.
In modern science, genres are usually classified according to a number of signs. First of all, on the subject of knowledge and the display of the object by a publicist. The second sign distinguish the specific purpose of the material. The third sign is associated with the breadth of coverage of reality and the scale of findings and messages. The determination of the character of literary and stylistic means used in the material also plays an important role in classification signs. And, finally, the size of the material on the newspaper page. In order not to be mistaken in the definition of the genre, you need to refer to all these features in the aggregate, and not to consider each of them separately.
If all journalistic materials are disassembled according to these characteristics, then there are three main generic groups.
The first, informational, unites an event occasion for a performance. They, as a rule, operate with simple, primary information and go on the heels of the event. Therefore, their main goal is to promptly report a fact, event, or phenomenon. Among the defining features of information genres, first of all, novelty stands out.
Analytical are a deep study of life and a comprehensive analysis of the facts. When creating these materials, the journalist conducts an analysis-synthesis of social reality, dividing the phenomenon under investigation into its component parts, examining them in detail, separating the essential from the insignificant, most importantly from the minor, and then drawing conclusions, generalizations and recommendations.
Artistic and publicistic genres are characterized by imagery, typification, emotional expressiveness and richness of literary and artistic graphic means, language and stylistic features. In them, a concrete, documentary fact seems to fade into the background, for the author it is more important to be able to rise above the phenomenon, above the fact.
Thus, we can say that informational materials - ascertain, analytical - comprehend and summarize, artistic and journalistic - typify the real-documentary reality.
Recently, the tendency to mix, to the interpenetration of genres. And because some researchers make mistakes, highlighting as new genres those that have combined the features of two or more have long been known. Genre is a relatively stable category that has not lost its formative qualities over the centuries. Being filled with new, actual content, the genre acquires new features, but the formal, genre-forming signs of serious transformations do not undergo. But over time, new species formations can nevertheless crystallize into separate genres. Among these, for example, is a genre of essay.
He was born with the interest to consider moral, ethical, historical, political and aesthetic problems through personification, through a specific person. Therefore, this genre is a personal one, which allows us to express and substantiate the author's opinion more fully, to embody personal feelings and personal emotions in it. He is also inherent in the philosophical and analytical view of the subject, and artistic typification of the image.
The theory of genres is extremely complex, multidimensional, but it is important for a practicing journalist to understand the specifics of the types and genres of journalism, because only the active use of the entire palette of genre diversity allows him to more clearly demonstrate his skills.
2. News journalism
When they talk about journalism informational (news), then its originality is seen, first of all, in the efficiency of messages about new events. An informant journalist seeks first to convey to the reader the information that is defined as "press news." Recall that the news is creatively transformed facts with the expectation of their perception by the audience, that is, so organized that the unexpected, sensational combined with the significant, helping in social orientation.
Along with this epistemological concept, there also exists the ontological concept of news, where it is defined as something that is interesting to most of the community and that was unknown to it before. According to S.Holl, the news can only be an interesting, unusual and significant event that occurred over the past twenty-four hours . That is, first of all, tangible timeliness of incidents or expressed opinions, their obvious closeness of the audience, drama, access to universal themes and extraordinaryness are important. This, ultimately, serves as a principle for the journalist to select news. Therefore, he is obliged to plan in advance or at least anticipate the results of his work on the selection of "news for the press."
In order to be able to correctly judge the event, the journalist seeks to answer six main questions: what exactly happened, who, where, when, how, and for what reason, performed the action or was imprisoned by circumstances. These traditional questions were formulated in the first century by Roman orator Marc Fabius Quintilian. And until now, journalists around the world use this simple, but very capacious information formula.
The purpose of addressing the audience with news materials can be: a warning about what happened or is preparing a fact, event, phenomenon, orientation in the social and political environment, the reader’s inclusion in the active life of society, encouraging him to correct his thoughts and actions.
In domestic science, the following main types of news are highlighted: event, incident, event, activity results, planning. Western researchers offer a different differentiation. They distinguish seven categories: news that carries a certain meaning-meaning — social, economic, political, human; news- "drama"; news- "surprise"; personality news; scandalous news, including criminal; news of a major event; proximity of the event to the consumer news .
The main place in the system of journalistic genres by Western theorists of journalism is now given to informational messages, and the mass media system itself is understood, first of all, as a means of spreading news, not ideas. Commentary, and even more so controversy and journalism for the modern system of mass communication in countries where the press has evolved as a source of commercial information remains unclaimed. It happened in Holland, UK, USA, Canada, Australia ...
In other countries, where the victory of capitalism was preceded by a long political struggle, journalism turned into a field of literary and political controversy. Therefore, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Russia and a number of other Eastern European countries consider intellectual publications based on analytical journalism to be priorities in the development.
So there were two directions - news and problem-analytical - in the perspective development of mass communication. Today’s striving for the Americanization of the press affects primarily the development of news journalism.
Press News is a special literary product that is in great demand in a post-industrial society, where information becomes the main product. It is “sold” to the public, being “packaged” in attractive sensational wrappers. Those who occupy key posts on television, in newspapers and other media are engaged in “establishing agenda items,” that is, they highlight certain issues, while others make them forgetful.
One of the methods of ideological news production is the procedure for selecting a news topic. This procedure requires that the fact be taken out of the real context of its origin in such a way that it can be placed in a new, symbolic context: the topic of news. Since the property to deserve coverage is determined by topics, the attention paid to an event may be disproportionate to its meaning, relevance, or timeliness .
Since the media today is a very profitable enterprise, if any topic becomes “obsolete”, it does not attract even the number of viewers or readers, as before, there are weighty reasons to expect a shift to another, more profitable hobby. Even the topics of informational messages themselves need newness .
The “real world” today is to a large extent what we see and hear through the mass media. The media do not just convey messages, they structure the "reality" by selecting, emphasizing and interpreting events. Thus, “press news” is the result of the practical, purposeful and creative activity of those involved in the “promotion” of news, their selection, as well as consumers of this information.
And here it is quite possible to agree with the statement of M. McLuhan  that the opening of newspaper editors - “news is what appears in print, and what is not printed is not news” - leads to the involvement of a person in “ an artificially created world by the media, which means to disorientation in the real world around it and the inability to make adequate decisions. Whereas the function of the media is the opposite - to help people navigate.
The information function of the mass media includes four mandatory components: first, finding information about events and living conditions of the immediate environment, society, the world as a whole, second, satisfying common interests and curiosity, and third, information support for innovative processes , learning and self-education, and, fourthly, the search for tips, the necessary information for decision-making.
In this regard, the role of information journalism, performing all these functions, is significantly increasing. Indeed, recently the amount of information coming to a person is so great that he is no longer able to independently figure it out, determine the truth criteria and make the right decision. Indeed, in the pre-industrial environment, the main information load was borne by personal contact with another person. Later, a book culture was formed, where print media prevailed until recently. In the post-industrial society, screen culture created on the basis of audiovisual technology is becoming increasingly important. From now on, the production, storage, transmission and consumption of information is made on a fundamentally different technological basis, leading to the decentralization of communication channels.
The availability and diversity of information received through modern channels of mass communication lead, on the one hand, to a significant homogeneity of the cultural information space, and on the other, to a huge variety of this information, from which a person can choose what corresponds to his orientations. If the society of the future is really such, then the role of a journalist in it will be reduced to a simple relay of facts: the transfer of information without any comments.
But on the other hand, the journalist draws a certain picture of the world in front of his audience, selecting and building facts in a certain sequence. In this sense, news journalism also has an educational function, orienting a person not only in the choice of spiritual values, but also forming the meaning of life in his mind. Moreover, to a person whose life is connected with monotonous work, the subordination of bureaucracy, social isolation and low level of solidarity, mass media offer pictures of the world that are far from consistent with his real life world. And this, paradoxically, helps him to relax and distract from his everyday problems.
But there is a great danger associated with the idea of a new world information domination. The global mass communication system is dependent on capital and technical equipment. The distribution of news on the planet is under the control of US news agencies. All events are illuminated from the point of view that benefits only the United States. In addition, the development of communication networks in developing countries is also monitored. In fact, we are talking about unilateral "export" of all that is associated with mass communication. That is why in 1980 UNESCO adopted a resolution supporting certain measures to regulate the flow of news and various cultural products that spread across national borders. The United States disagreed with this resolution and left UNESCO.
Without focusing on the fact that a journalist in one way or another forms public opinion through the selection of facts, American print researchers consider it a blatant absurdity that there is an open expression of views in news journalism: many textbooks on the US and the UK insist that there should be only news in the news and comments - the basis of analytical materials. Only special or foreign correspondents with remarks are entitled to their own opinion. The reader, by the firm conviction of supporters of pure information journalism, wants to know what the journalist saw and discovered, and not how and why this happened.
In fact, informational texts benefit from the use of elements of analysis and components of journalism. For example, if, when reporting news, a journalist shows a cause-and-effect relationship or reports new interpretations and views, then he can achieve an effect called sensational interpretation. To do this, the journalist must keep a news diary, marking the development of events.
Journalism of news, highlighting the most significant or most vivid facts from the flow of events, creates materials that are strong primarily by the effect of "self-evident fact." But information journalism is not at all “photographing” events. It is a hard work that takes a lot of time and effort from a journalist. A rigorous analysis of the events taking place in the world allows us to correctly and timely select from the multitude of facts those that become "news of the press."
Among the main requirements for this type of product - efficiency, brevity, compactness and accuracy. Western researchers identify twelve factors that define a fact as news: frequency of repeatability, scale, clarity of meaning, adaptation (taking into account the sociocultural context of perception of a fact), consistency with audience expectations, sensationalism, dynamism (continuous development of a once-started event), combination (combination of seriousness and entertainment ), involvement in the events of the leading states of the world, a reflection of the life of the “stars” of politics or culture, personification (the life of a person or those who are personified rutes a certain social or political phenomenon), the expected negativity of the consequences of the event - only so the journalist can interest the audience with his message. The first six of these factors are considered the most important in modern news journalism [2, p. 6-7].
The spread of electronic media is once again leading the world to the state of a tribal society, the “ear society,” where speech was the dominant means of transmitting information. The global communication network is similar to the central nervous system of a person transmitting short operational information. In this new world, primarily due to the rapid compression of space, time and information, a person gets the opportunity to simultaneously participate in events occurring at a great distance from each other. He as the brain receives information and selects the only acceptable behavior. And the development of society as a whole depends on how responsibly the journalist fills his “brain” with reliable information.
In a post-industrial society, information journalism firmly occupies its niche, allowing the journalist to acquire a new social status.
The main genre models of news journalism today are considered a note, information correspondence, informational report, informational interviews, blitz-survey, report, obituary. Each of these models, responding to the main genre-forming features of news journalism, has specific features, which consist in the ability to present news through exchanging remarks, to demonstrate the visual features of the incident, to recreate events or to clarify the situation.
3. Analytical journalism
Although the primary task of journalism is to make information publicly available, but at the same time journalism is a sphere of civil society and therefore it has the right to demand from the audience participation in discussions and decisions, bringing socially significant problems to its discussion. Analytical journalism makes up the main content of a quality press: carefully comparing the facts between themselves, journalistic analysts interpret the news, comment on it and even predict the future. Figuratively speaking, analytical journalism coordinates the activities of society.
It is clear that working in this kind of journalism requires an analytical mind, the ability not only to fix the obvious, but also to determine the connections between phenomena, fearlessly assume responsibility for decisions.
The subject of analytical journalism are topical social phenomena, events, processes, situations and related theoretical and practical problems of social development. In order to understand all this, a journalist has to clarify the causes and conditions of the development of events, determine the underlying motives and intentions of those acting in a given situation, evaluate the correctness of the choice of means and ways of developing the situation, the validity of points of view and ideas. It goes without saying that such materials have a large volume: it is impossible to reveal the essence of what is happening in two paragraphs. After all, if fact is important in information journalism, in analytical it is a thought generated by facts, and the author’s emotions generated by this thought.
Exploring the world, the journalist-analyst is trying to orient the reader in public life, to help him determine his life position. And for this it shows all the events in terms of the role that these events can play in the life of the reader. For example, as far as facts, objects, phenomena satisfy various needs of a person. Consider how analytical journalism can help satisfy some of them.
First, the need may be the enjoyment of the process of labor itself. When a person loves his work, the quality of the products produced increases many times. To explain to a person what is the beauty of work, to help him understand and love him, one can only show the role and place of a particular person in common social life.
Secondly - the result of activity. A journalist and analyst, convincingly showing that the product or knowledge acquired will bear fruit in the future, helps create a need for work in society. For example, if you know what benefits your studies will bring you, then the acquisition of specific knowledge will become your need.
Thirdly, remuneration for the activity. Such remuneration may be salary or promotion, fame or professionalism. And maybe the joy of a person close to you.
Fourthly, the high goals served by the process or the result of an activity. To high goals can be attributed to the construction of a truly democratic society, and the elimination of pathogenic bacilli, and the achievement of personal happiness. An example of such an analytical demonstration of the interrelationship of small and high can serve as a well-known poem about a nail that was not found in the forge to shoe the commander's horse: as a result, the battle was lost, the enemy entered the city, the inhabitants were destroyed. In order to save the whole country, the blacksmith had to forge a carnation in time.
Since a person is not always aware of the real causal relationships of the means and goals, it is difficult for him to appreciate what he is doing now. Analytical performance in the media can dispel doubts about the need and significance of specific facts, events, phenomena.
Thematically, there are a dozen types of journalistic analysis: political, historical, economic, sociological, psychological, environmental, legal, military, sports, moral, art history, art. But no matter what specific journalistic research topic is devoted to, it analyzes either individual current events (for example, the military conflict in Kosovo), or processes taking place in society (democratization), or situations at a certain moment (growth of the dollar).
As a rule, thematic analytical materials are published in special editions, for example, political analysis - in the magazines "Open Politics", "Russian Federation", television programs "Itogi", "Zerkalo", military - in the "Military-Historical Journal", art criticism - in the Theater or the Cinema Art magazines and the Theater Plus TV television program ... But this does not mean that analytical materials cannot appear in other publications: for example, the Krasnaya Zvezda and Literaturnaya Gazeta newspapers like to publish their own pages moral analysis is modern of society.
In order for this type of journalism to be interesting to readers, it is very important to show the logical chain of developments with a possible forecast for the future. What was, what is the situation now, what needs to be done, what will happen if we do not take these steps, what will be useful and what is harmful, the analyst journalist thinks about this. Of course, for the reliability of the findings, the journalist needs the help of competent specialists. But their comments in most cases remain outside of the analytical material, having served only as an impetus for reflection on the revealed facts.
Recently, analytical journalism has begun to actively develop. The journalist is willing to interpret the facts, pushing the audience to make the conclusions necessary for the journalist. Such specificity of analytical journalism enables the journalist to portray not so much the real as the virtual world. The expectation that the idea of a lifestyle will sooner or later shape life itself, which leads to the fact that analytical journalism actively models the way of thinking of the audience.
However, journalism, according to the English media researcher D. Yang, can suddenly "create" social problems, presenting them as dramatically insurmountable and emphasizing their priority. The media can quickly and effectively “sow” public indignation and construct what can be called a moral panic around a certain type of deviation. Through journalism, the need to create a moral panic in society is institutionalized .
Such modeling is akin to manipulation, since a journalist gets the opportunity to cause a certain provoked reaction to his material by managing the situation that he himself has set in advance. Therefore, analytical journalism is a very dangerous weapon in the hands of inept journalists.
The role of analytical journalism increases significantly in conditions when mass media fulfill certain obligations to society: materials that meet high professional standards of information content, accuracy, objectivity and balance should not directly or indirectly contribute to the manifestation of violence, social unrest, and insulting minorities. The journalist becomes a research scientist who has no right to make a mistake: he is responsible for how the world will appear tomorrow.
Forecasting is a complex multi-stage process of scientific foresight, which is a necessary component in the analytical work of a journalist. First, a search and forecast activity is needed, when a research journalist is engaged in creating a scientifically based picture of the emerging trends in the development of a phenomenon. Then - the normative-predictive activity, taking into account the subordination and interrelatedness of the revealed facts. After that, a research journalist is trying to identify all possible options for the development of the situation. And finally, he proposes the only, in his opinion, plan for further action.
Thus, forecasting always begins with the development of a research program. The journalist first gets acquainted with the results of research conducted earlier. He is determined with the object and subject of his observation, identifies problems and outlines the objectives of the study.
A distinctive feature of journalistic research nevertheless becomes that the journalist does not set himself the task of comprehensively studying the phenomenon. He only shows his most relevant side for today. The forecast here is only in the first approximation to the truth. After all, the primary task still remains the desire to somewhat advance the analysis of events, adding his point of view, his opinion to others.
Creating a problem-analytical commentary of the situation, the journalist, first of all, seeks to direct the attention of the audience to important new facts, to show their causal relationships and suggest possible ways to solve the problem. Sometimes a journalist can anticipate events, prepare society for their inevitability.
The basis of knowledge about society and its activities are the facts. These are, firstly, the actions of individuals or large social groups. Secondly, material or spiritual products of human activity. Thirdly, opinions, judgments and evaluations.
It is clear that the subject of the study are topical facts, phenomena, events, situations that can change the motivation of further actions of the audience. After all, a journalist aims at understanding the essence of a fact, a phenomenon, an event, a situation, an analysis of the causes, conditions, prerequisites of their existence and development. And by identifying these trends, he models the patterns of development of society as a whole, showing typical contradictions within the fact being commented upon.
The meaning of modeling lies in the word itself, which is translated from the Latin as "sample". The journalist finds in the world around him facts and phenomena that, in his opinion, serve as a certain model, model, copy of facts and events that are inaccessible for some reason for journalistic analysis. And on the example of the facts and phenomena selected by him, he traces the possible trends in the development of similar facts and phenomena. But, needless to say, replacing the object of journalistic research with a model implies the existence of a community between them, based on the principles of unity and interrelation of objects and phenomena of reality.
In short, modeling is a method of researching various phenomena and processes, based on reproducing the properties, relationships, and trends of the studied processes to assess their condition, predict, and develop sound decisions.
As the main genre models of problem-analytical journalism by domestic researchers, the following are highlighted: analytical report, analytical correspondence, analytical interview, analytical survey, analytical survey, conversation, comment, sociological summary, questionnaire, monitoring, rating, review, article, journalistic investigation, review, media review, forecast, version, experiment, letter, confession, recommendation, analytical press release.
The main purpose of the journalist’s address to the audience with these problem-analytical materials is the expansion of the reader’s social activity field.
4. Artistic journalism
The completeness of the images created, the brightness of specific details of the plot and composition, psychologism often demonstrate the desire of the author to artistic typification. The “background” functions of the unfolded details, expressive character traits, and plot-everyday pictorial scenes grow into independent units of reflection of reality, combined with the author’s desire to use figurative thinking and figuratively expressive vocabulary.
These signs allow researchers to isolate a group of artistic and journalistic genres, in which the images show not just the individual characteristics of a person, but the features characteristic of our contemporaries as a whole. Fiction journalism, as it were, stands at the junction of fiction proper and scientific, social and political prose.
Since the artistic method of reflecting reality lies in the unlimited use of the author’s fantasy, fiction, which gives the creator the freedom to create an artistic image and reveal the truth of life in general through him, only some of its elements are used in journalism, primarily related to typing the image, -expressive vocabulary, the use of conventions in the reconstruction of events. Publicism limits the image of the true fact, replacing fiction with conjecture, containing the author's assumptions, modeled on the basis of real facts.
It is customary to isolate three genre subgroups of artistic journalism: essay journalism, satirical journalism, philosophical journalism. They differ, first of all, by the way of displaying reality. The essence of essay journalism is largely predetermined by the synthesis of reportage, visual-figurative, and research, analytic, principles. The dominance of one of them, in turn, predetermines the predominantly artistic or predominantly theoretical concept of the display of the subject.
Satirical journalism is aimed at ridiculing certain human vices. The nature of journalistic ridicule of reality creates certain genre subtypes of satirical journalism: good-natured laughter creates humor, and accusatory laughter creates satire. And finally, philosophical journalism is an attempt to actualize a socially significant sociopolitical or cultural phenomenon as a reason to reflect in journalism its substantive characteristics, important for understanding the moment, and personality-personalized thoughts about the patterns of its development.
One of the objects of reflection of artistic journalism is the human individuality. Through the prism of human individuality, erected before the figurative and symbolic reading, a publicist can consider any manifestation of reality, which is situationally expressed in an actual problem. Typing a personality, creating a figurative and symbolic reading of real facts, events, phenomena, artistic journalism is entering a new level of author's generalization of reality. Documentation of fiction has yet become the subject of a special study of theorists of journalism. And yet this is not a new phenomenon in Russian journalism, and more than once it has become the subject of controversy in literary works. Of course, this group of journalistic genres is akin to biographical prose genres, based, like literary and artistic ones, on the editing of documents of personal origin and their deeply personal interpretation.
The subject of the publicist's analysis is the inner world, the system of values, habits, attitudes of a person, his world view and perception of the surrounding reality. Through deeply personal feelings, through the inner world, the journalist tries to show the tension of the situation in the outside world. The author explores the person's addictions, unusual personality possibilities, high professional qualities of the hero, his physiological features, examples of serving moral values, devotion to ideals or human vices.
In no case should a journalist be brought to the forefront only the desire to present the hero to the audience in all the nakedness of his inner world - his main goal is to declare his moral position, his understanding of good and evil through an assessment of the personality of the hero.
As a creative personality, the journalist opposes the absolute identification of the individual with society, supports his emotional refusal to “follow along with everyone” and the desire to develop his own creative potential. For the real basis of the concept of “inner freedom” just means the personal space in which a person has the opportunity to remain himself. In the industrial age, technological reality intrudes into this personal space and reduces it to nothing. With the help of analytical journalism, the reader gets an opportunity to try to understand what is happening, in the processes of the internal and external world, which helps him to relieve emotional tension and avoid stress caused by an unreasonable load on the nervous system.
The journalist illustrates all this with examples from the life of the hero, tilting the curtain over its most intimate sides. It is clear that the sincerity and actual reliability of such material can only be determined by its author. Only he has the right to finally decide on the reasonable sufficiency of the material, in this case - the embodiment of the meaning of events in the whole image of the inner world, the soul of the hero.
In the end, theorized fan-tazy appears before the reader, the distinctive features of which are relative imperfection, fragmentation, the principle of assembly, and stylistic syncretism. The system of evidence, if present, is constructed from quotations, whose authorship is determined by the generational, worldview belonging of the hero, and the entire external world is viewed exclusively through the prism of his inner experiences.
The main genre models of artistic journalism, reflecting human individuality, rightly rely essay (portrait, travel or problem), journalistic story, everyday history, legend, confession.
Often the absurdities of life, which are embodied in the comic reflection of reality, become the subject of reflection of artistic journalism. At the heart of the comic lies the contradiction between the new and the old, the emerging and the dying. The comic situation does not exclude at all the sharp condemnation of those phenomena that cause laughter, revealing a discrepancy between what life should be in the opinion of the publicist and her random, absurd or unworthy form of manifestation. The question of the comic among other questions of aesthetics in antiquity attracted the attention of philosophers. So even in the IV century BC, Aristotle pointed to the inner incongruity as the cause of the comic nature of the phenomena and defined the comedy as the reproduction of the worst people. In satirical journalism all shades and varieties of the comic are observed: humor, irony, sarcasm, satire.
Humor is the most life-affirming and complex in shades form of comic. In it, the serious is expressed with a grin, in the insignificant and even insignificant the important and deep is always visible. Humorous laughter only underlines the imperfection of the reflected life phenomenon.
Irony - sharper than humor, a negative assessment of an object or phenomenon through its mockery in an allegorical form - gives the artistic-publicistic image a special color, revealing in a peculiar way the author’s dissatisfaction with the surrounding world. This is an artistic principle from which a publicist proceeds, striving with particular urgency to emphasize the seriousness, sometimes even the tragedy of situations and situations.
Sarcasm is even more caustic, stinging, denouncing, bitter ridicule. Unlike irony, sarcasm uses a direct form of ridicule, outwardly corresponding to its essence: if the essence of irony in allegory, in a subtle hint, then in sarcasm the most important thing is the extreme degree of emotional attitude, the high pathos of denial, turning into angry indignation.
Satire - the most mercilessly ridiculing the imperfections of the world and human vices is a kind of comic. She leaves no hope for the correction of the criticized life phenomena. Distinctive signs of satire are underlined bias, a conscious sharpening of life problems, a bold violation of the proportions in the depicted phenomena. Therefore, the satirical image is always conditional, the hero for the author is primarily a carrier of a dangerous public evil.
The main models of satirical genres of artistic journalism, using these techniques of comic reflection of reality - feuilleton, pamphlet, parody, epigram, epitaph, anecdote, joke, aphorism, journalistic tale, satirical commentary.
The goals of addressing the audience with humorous and satirical works can be to maintain vitality, to enrich emotional reactions, psychological training, to induce the eradication of evil and enhance the impact on social processes.
The human desire for truth, the creation of higher-level abstractions and their unification into various conceptual schemes is embodied in the artistic and journalistic work. Understanding how a long and complex process, including interpretation, reinterpretation, convergence, divergence, conversion and a number of other operations, forms the subject of reflection of philosophical journalism - personality-personalized thoughts about the laws of social development.
The contents of this genre subgroup are reflections on the meaning of being, development of society, life and death, knowledge of truth, good and evil, discussed in the framework of a particular spiritual activity, which since antiquity is called philosophy, and expressing deeply personal individual knowledge about being distinguished by a critical-creative attitude to the world and the former system of world views.
Being essentially analytic, philosophical journalism does not set itself the goal of analyzing a pressing problem that requires urgent solutions. Her interests are focused on the global problems of social being, which cannot be solved simultaneously. Leading here was the development of the existence of the triad "man, humanity, humanity" - a truly global problem of the present and the future.
And it is considered, first of all, through moral categories, the moral level of modern society. Therefore, this genre subgroup is most often addressed by philosophers, cultural scientists, art historians, historians - in a word, experts in the field of social sciences.
The depth of penetration into the material and the breadth of illumination of reality entirely depend on the ability of the publicist to perceive the spiritual values of society, on the level of his scientific worldview, which includes the scientific picture of the world, the generalized results of human cognition, the principles of human relations with the natural and artificial environment.
The publicist advertise his subjectivism, the desire to comprehend the global nature of what is happening, to show the socio-psychological slice of society. And in this all-inclusiveness the author of the material himself becomes the peculiar lens of the refraction of facts. No forces can force the reader to continue reading as soon as he realizes that his own intelligence exceeds the intellect of the publicist.
The perception of spiritual values is creative. Each person interprets in his own way, interprets the images and feelings recreated by the author. Any person experiences spiritual values through the prism of his own experience, but it is always the creative work of the soul and mind of a person. Philosophical journalism becomes a special activity of two interrelated creative personalities - the author and the reader. The level of education and general culture of each of these two individuals directly affects the emergence of a specific dialogue, simultaneous spiritual consumption and spiritual creativity.
The objectives of the appeal to the audience with philosophical and educational texts are diverse. Here and clarification of the essence of the phenomenon, and the expansion of the field of social activity of the reader, and the motivation to recreate the associative series and the comparison of interpretations, and intellectual, emotional, moral enrichment. Researchers distinguish among the main genre models of philosophical journalism a philosophical and journalistic tale, journalistic story, sermon and essay.
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[four]. Henschel R. Definition of social problems by mass media // Mass media and social problems: Reader / Trans. IG Yasaveev. - Kazan, 2000. - P.64.
[five]. McLuhan M. The Electronic Age ... // Mass Media in Canada / in English. - Toronto, 1962. - P.179-205.
. News and Journalism in the UK / in English - London, New York, 1994. - p.19.
Given by: Tumanov D. Media Creativity: Tutorial. - Kazan, 2002. - p. 167-180.
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