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Master class with Alexander Rozhkov. Lesson 4. Analytical article - the most common species genre of analytical journalism
Modern journalistic practice comes close to the fact that the genre in it is increasingly giving way to the concept of “text”, which incorporates features of different genres and becomes a more convenient and universal form of presenting information to the audience. Nevertheless, the genres that were formed in the XIX century continue to function and evolve, thanks to them we can diversify the reflection of what is happening around and, according to the laws of each of them, build our own work. Thus, the genre boundaries allow us to make our publications unique and original.

For analytical journalism, thought is important. But it can be embodied in different forms, most often our colleagues use an analytical article. It includes the scale of the coverage of phenomena, the depth of generalization and the degree of concentration of the material. The article is a leading genre of journalism and journalism, containing reflection and analysis of a significant phenomenon (or group), clear logical communication schemes of an array of facts, reasoned generalizations, confirming the concept of the author. The basis of the analysis in the article is the laws of being in various fields - politics, economics, society, culture, morality, gender, etc. In terms of the collected facts, we must combine them into evidential groups, modeling certain situations that are adequate to existing ones, build on the basis of these logical chains their conclusions, suggesting ways to solve the problem. The integrity of the article is achieved by following a single line of concept or idea.

The analytical article can be written in different keys, but in the bulk of its main task is to identify problem situations, constructive criticism of negative phenomena, the search for possible recipes for the "treatment" of social ailments. The article “A champion is looking for a job”, by Juliana Zhihor, in the social and political weekly journal of the qualitative nature “New Generation” (in issue No. 45 of November 12, 2004) vividly confirms these postulates. The title (a kind of advertising of your material) immediately outlines the problem: what should former athletes, winners and champions of olympiads and numerous sports fights do after the end of a sports career? The lead introduces the reader to the course of the matter: “Re-qualifying” from a world sports celebrity to a retiree lagging behind in the backyard has always been easy. But, apparently, in our country the process of “forgetting heroes” has been put on the state level ”. Two sentences represent the idea of ​​an article. By the way, there is even a special analytic lead, which in the process of giving a summary of the problem posed. In the article “The champion is looking for work,” the problem arises at the junction of the economy and morality. Specific champions, whose destinies have become the object of the newspaper’s research, are a vivid illustration of such mass indifference to the former pride of the nation: it is Alexander Savitsky, a famous breaststroke swimmer, one of the twenty best swimmers of the USSR and the CIS, and Alexey Sivok, a sports legend, ten-time champion World, the absolute champion of Asia in powerlifting. Having a few examples left, the author takes one or two highlights to confirm the main idea, so as not to overload the article, but at the same time create a complete image of the phenomenon.

Analyzing the life's vicissitudes of champions, the author relies on the following postulates: 1) the state reduced the care of former champions to formality; 2) the complete absence of a system for adapting athletes after the completion of their careers; 3) the society, the people surrounding the ex-heroes of the sport cannot help them due to objective and subjective reasons; 4) Does Kazakhstan need patriotism? By the way, the last starting point of the article “Champion is looking for work” expands its borders as a whole to the problem of “an unnecessary person.” A similar situation can be extrapolated to veterans, singers, dancers, circus performers, teachers, doctors - among them many honored people whose life situation after dizzying takeoffs has developed not in the best way.

For an analytical article, it is important for the author to be able to combine already existing facts with new information. In the article about sportsmen, the journalist pushes off from the decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 9, 2003, where the rules for the payment of life-long monthly material support to athletes and coaches were approved. It seems there is a state decision, but ... Firstly, the amount of the allowance is meager - 8 MCI (that's a little more than fifty dollars), and secondly, in order to receive this money, it is necessary to comply with a lot of formalities. Therefore, due to possession of a certain degree of top knowledge, the journalist then receives a peculiar key to solving or assessing the situation. In the course of the direct analysis, the problem situation can be clarified. The journalist poses questions and seeks answers along the following lines: what is the essence of the phenomenon? What social groups are the participants involved in the events? What kind of contradictions arise in the course of solving this problem? How do the participants, the community, and the people around react? Who and why on which side? What do these events lead to? What solutions are possible? The scheme is not rigid, but you have to understand its principle - find out the whole thing.

In an analytical article, it is necessary to combine conceptual and figurative, preferably on the basis of dialectics, in order to get illustrations (remember, as I spoke in the third lecture about clarifying thoughts, depicting the main idea of ​​the article). Explaining the arguments, the author can reveal the essence of the phenomenon being analyzed, citing various arguments both in favor of the thesis advanced by him and vice versa - by demonstrating nasty arguments. The style of the material under consideration is characteristic of a generally calm, without frills, direction of the newspaper. Although the end of this article is too straightforward: “We, it seems, remember heroes at best once every four years. And even then, there is a feeling in order to check in, shine, cling to the glory of the heroes. To then turn away from them once and for all. ” True, the editors softened the categorical nature of the introductory word “similar,” but on the whole the sharpness remained. It would be better to avoid such “morality”, and in the end to make a well-known historical fact, the reader himself will draw the necessary conclusions. And as a remark it is worth noting that it was necessary to say in the text about such common “professions” for former athletes as racketeering and banditry.

As we can see from the example of an article from “NP”, in general, the peculiarity of journalistic type of verbal creativity is that problem questions are investigated by a specific author who gives his own opinion, but it is based on the point of view of a certain social group, large or small (party, associations, professional, social groups, editors). This feature of authorship in journalism and journalism has received the terminological designation "collective speaker". Regardless of the language and style of your article, it requires the presence of a trinity: ethos, logos and pathos. Athos supports morals, logos represent arguments, and pathos adds passion. These constants, which came from oral speech into written form thousands of years ago, allow us to achieve the goal of understanding with the most effective means. The image of any event or phenomenon is recreated by journalists of the print media with the help of a text whose task, ideally, is to create a similar image with the recipient.

When creating a basis for argumentation, quoting is very important - direct or indirect, with the obligatory indication of the source (anonymity is an extreme case). Often used indirectly, because it makes it possible to remove irrelevant words and secondary details.

When moving from one thought to another (respectively, from one part of the article to another), do not make abrupt transitions in order not to lose the inline links. You must use link words or sentences. If you make such transitions consciously, then delimit the article with subtitles.

In conclusion, I want to remind you that although an analytical article is a complex and multi-faceted work of journalistic creativity, for the reader it should be perceived as easily as possible, but at the same time, its task is to make the audience think about the problem you raised. Such skill comes in the process of everyday practice.