A single community called "Soviet people" did not work out. Apparently it could not have been formed in a country where, on the one hand, the European Baltic states, in the south the Caucasus and Central Asia, and in the East the border with China and Japan. In the center, an incomprehensible Russia, which has entrusted itself with itself the “mission of the unification of nations”, a mission that is obviously impossible for it. As a result, as we all remember, after the collapse of the USSR, this very “friendship of nations” broke out with a multitude of interethnic and intra-national conflicts in various parts of the empire. However, after the formation of new independent states in the post-Soviet space, and after the first migration flows - to Russia, Israel, Germany, the USA, etc. - many more people for one reason or another remained to live in strangers, so to speak, “national apartments”.
This number for the most part, just dedicated to this issue. Moreover, the discussion will focus not only on Russian-speaking citizens remaining in Central Asia (a completely miserable term expressing absolutely nothing, but somehow caught on to refer to persons of a non-titular nationality), but also of all other nationalities who live in these countries in a minority . In this case, we are interested in one basic question: how much has the national composition of Central Asia changed over the past fifteen years, how did national minorities integrate into new life realities and did they integrate at all, today's international relations in the countries in question.
The whole situation in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan is highlighted in the issue by separate articles of our authors. As for Uzbekistan, in this country the situation with national minorities has always been rather peculiar. To begin with, due to the demographic features in Uzbekistan, the vast majority of the population have always been Uzbeks. People of other nationalities - Tatars, Jews, Russians, Germans, etc. - arrived in this country in several waves. To a lesser extent during the colonization of these territories by the Russian Empire, after the October 1917 coup and the civil war that followed, during and after the Second World War. In addition, in recent Soviet times, the influx of migrants has been carried out within the framework of the supply of qualified personnel for industry, for the functioning of party, state and security agencies. It is interesting to note that after the collapse of the USSR, the outflow of people of non-titular nationality from Uzbekistan was the strongest. This was connected, as has already been said, with the total predominance of the Uzbek population, the beginning of the stagnation of industry and the economy, where the overwhelming majority of national minorities and some, in many ways, unaccountable fear of the very idea of independent Uzbek statehood, worked. Despite the fact that the Uzbeks are quite a peace-loving people, which was partly determined by the centuries-old sedentary lifestyle, this same lifestyle also made them the most religious people, unlike, say, Kyrgyz or Kazakhs. And Islam has always caused fears among Europeans, not least, by the way, because of misunderstanding and, often, because of the rejection of this religion. In addition, the irritation that has accumulated among the Uzbeks over the past decades of the existence of Soviet power, because of the truly arrogant attitude of people from Russia to the local population, has been felt. All this led to the fact that with the weakening influence of Moscow, this resulted in open everyday nationalism (in 1986-1996), and already at the time of independence and state nationalism. It is during this period that the strongest migration waves apply.
However, over time, domestic nationalism gradually began to decline. Firstly, there are much fewer non-titular nationalities left in the country. Secondly, strangely enough, this was affected by the deterioration of the economic situation in Uzbekistan and the impoverishment of the entire population. This led to the fact that the Uzbeks began to relate to the Gentiles to be much more loyal and tolerant than during the "perestroika democracy", because the Uzbeks had nothing special to share and, just like the Uzbeks, they saw that it was difficult for all of them. and made them "friends by economic misfortune." In fact, the Uzbeks have always been distinguished by tolerance and calm attitudes towards the colonists.
As for the niches that national minorities occupied and occupy, then everything changed again after the collapse of the USSR. For example, during the Soviet era, the Jewish, Armenian, and Russian were quite prominent and powerful diasporas. They occupied niches in commerce (Armenians peacefully shared it with Uzbeks), in medicine and education (Jews and Russians), and in industry (Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Jews, etc.). Traditionally, there were a lot of Koreans in Uzbekistan who were resettled here from the Far East, but then they tried not to stay noticeable and worked mainly in agriculture, which the party organs strictly followed. After the declaration of independence and the first mass migration, Armenians, Jews and Russians lost their positions. The first two communities came from the fact that almost all of the so-called Russian-speaking people left, except that many of them left because most of the industrial enterprises stopped working, and they began to recruit Uzbeks for those who were still working almost in an orderly manner. . Therefore, for several years and they are trying to move to Russia. Today in Uzbekistan of these minority groups (primarily the Slavs are meant) only those who got a job are not very bad and are not willing to change a relatively full life into obscurity in another country, pensioners who just live out their lives and those just not able to, and most of them, leave Uzbekistan.
At the same time, the role of the Korean diaspora, which, having freed itself from the “party trusteeship,” began to show itself actively in trade, business and the service sector, became noticeable. This was facilitated by the fact that at that time Uzbekistan was developing economic ties with South Korea, in particular, with the corporation “DAEWOO”, as well as the fact that Koreans did not emigrate in such quantities as the other national minorities.
The Kazakhs, who for a time lived peacefully together with the Uzbeks and also, as they were engaged in trade and agriculture, also began to emigrate gradually to their “historical homeland” as the standard of living in Uzbekistan fell and the growth rate of economic growth in neighboring Kazakhstan . The Oralman program adopted by the Kazakh government, which provides significant benefits and one-time cash benefits for returning Kazakhs, also contributed to this.
In general, the attitude of Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Kazakhs is rather peculiar. For example, the Uzbeks always treated their “steppe” neighbors with some arrogance, and they lived in more prosperity than they did. However, recently the attitude began to change. Uzbeks do not oppress them, but they are often irritated by the fact that their once rich republic in terms of living standards lags behind the once poor neighbors. True, it should be noted irritation, and very often the extreme bitterness is directed, first of all, at their own government, rather than at the Kazakhs or Kyrgyz themselves. The reason for this is again in the deteriorating economic situation of the country. In principle, the Kyrgyz and Kazakhs continue to carry out their usual activities in the places of their compact residence, that is, in the border areas.