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No. 20 (20) December 2005
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12 (12) August 2005
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Elena Dorokhova,
Strange parliament
So say Afghan experts
Umid Arman
The composition of the new parliament of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is perceived differently. According to former mojaheds, they took almost 60% of the seats in Vulusi Jirga, the lower house of the Afghan parliament. But state sources claim that 45% of the Mujahideen, 20% of Democrats, 20% of independent deputies, and 5% are divided between the Taliban and the Communists. But it is possible that these percentages will vary.

249 deputies of Vulusi Jirga were elected from more than 2500 candidates who participated in the elections. Elections took place on September 18, but the counting of votes ended on November 13. Of course, this is not symbolic, but it was on this day that the Taliban capitulated and left Kabul in 2001. The counting process for JEMB - The joint Afghan election commission with the UN was not an easy one. The entire vote counting process was accompanied by numerous and lengthy rallies held by disgruntled candidates. JEMB found not only fake ballots, but also ballot boxes. Across the country, 3% of the ballot boxes were declared “false”. In addition, another electoral body - the Commission received 6 thousand complaints from candidates, which led to the cancellation of the mandate of 9 winners of the electoral race.

In general, the Afghan parliament is a unique legislative body. According to political expert Razoki Monmun, it consisted of those forces that fought against each other and did not have a single ideological course. “They are Communists, Mujahideen, Taliban, Democrats and those who are called independent. Such a parliament and the level of political thinking of the deputies of Afghanistan in reality causes fear not only in Afghan society, but in the region and the world as a whole. No one is certain that these former enemies will calmly write laws for a lawless state. This parliament can nullify the expectations and efforts of the world community, ”says Razoki Monmun.

Afghanistan acquired parliament after more than 25 years of war and 39 years of absence of a legislative body. Dr. Abdulkadir Ranchbar, chairman of the Union of Lawyers of Afghanistan and an elected deputy from the Kabul province, said that one should not challenge such a controversial parliament. In his opinion, the danger is different - in the level of education of deputies (also the consequences of the civil war), which will not allow the Afghan parliament to perform the functions of a legislative body. “Most of the deputies have hardly taken the book in their hands in recent years. Together they had weapons in their hands. And that says a lot, ”says Dr. Ranchbar. But he hopes that sufficient life experience of deputies will help them.

Deputy Soleh Muhammad Registoni, also elected from the Panjshir province, believes that parliament was and remains the only and last proof for the government of Hamid Karzai and the United States of the correctness of the current Afghanistan course and the presence of NATO led by the Americans to the world community. “If heterogeneous, even opposing, forces of parliament cannot work in a single spirit, then the next war and destabilization in the country and the region cannot be avoided,” Registoni says. - It is possible that the tolerance for the opposite position will be controlled by the deputies. The Mujahid, the Communist, the Taliban, the Democrat, the Sunni, the Shiite, and anything else are unlikely to agree on one thing. This is Afghanistan. We know this well. ” However, Registoni is sure that “most likely, the activities of the parliament will be controlled from the outside, and the deputies elected by the people (arms and money) will simply confine themselves to pressing buttons.”

According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 25% in Vulusi Jirga should be held by women, which will be 68 seats. Experts believe that this fact will cause a confrontation (in the political sense) in the parliament of women and men. So, for example, on this occasion we can recall the episode from the first meeting of Luya Jirga, when the representative from the province of Farah Malolay Juyo called all Mujahideen thieves, rapists and criminals from the province, which immediately caused threats to her from the old Mujahid Abdurasul Syayo. By the way, Juyo also went to parliament.

According to Shukrii Borikzai, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Oinai zan, an elected woman from the Kabul province, an Afghan woman went through all the trials, especially during the rule of the Taliban regime. “A husband and a son were killed in front of her, they raped her and her daughter, she was betrayed and betrayed until now. She is a commodity. Everything passed, but fear and pain did not disappear. I think Afghan women are very offended by the history of men who have been making history for 25 years in Afghanistan, and they have done very badly. Afghan women deputies are doing everything to achieve in the parliament, in the law, even a drop of freedom for themselves, ”said Shukriya Borikzai.

According to the Human Rights Commission of Afghanistan, out of 1,200 complaints received by the commission, more than 800 from women who are not willingly married, are abandoned by their husbands, who are subjected to violence by members of illegal armed groups. Three cases of self-immolation of women occurred in Herat within 12 hours; the well-known young poetess Anguman from Herat was killed by her own husband.

Yasin Rasuli, a political expert, an employee of the Center for Strategic Studies at the Foreign Ministry of Afghanistan, calls the situation in the country's political life very tense, as the government has acquired a parliament, where the majority is the opposition, and not uniform and not uniform.

With all this, judging objectively, the government of Afghanistan, sitting on the bayonets of American soldiers, nevertheless managed to unite different positions and opinions, different people who hadn’t been able to sit at the negotiating table for years. Before this was not possible to anyone. But, according to Afghan experts, the Mujahideen of the American representatives simply surprised. They were tried not to be allowed into the parliament building at all. The fact is that under the new electoral law, the candidate had to hand over weapons in order to become a deputy, which the Afghans did with great reluctance. According to the data of the Disarmament Commission of Afghanistan, during the registration of candidates, 2000 thousand weapons of various types were handed over. And another agreement has been concluded that the elected candidate will be in the parliament without weapons and bodyguards.

However, there is an opinion that former mujahideen, warlords, when elected to parliament, pursue a more pragmatic goal - to acquire parliamentary immunity and thereby avoid responsibility under the law for their past transgressions. But according to the laws of Afghanistan, those who have committed crimes, and parliamentary immunity will not help.

And these days there is talk that the new Afghan parliament is not at all Mujahidi - the so-called Mujahideen class adheres to the pro-government course, that is, they are all supporters of Hamid Karzai.

“Let it be so, but it will not improve the situation inside the country and in the region,” said political expert Razoki Monmun. - The Prokarzayev parliament may cause further unrest in the country, but in essence it will become pro-American and the consolidation of the power of Hamid Karzai, means strengthening the US position. Afghanistan is turning into a new Pakistan, where the forces of the Afghan Mujahideen were based in the struggle against the Soviet Union. And the next Afghanistan in this way is likely to be Central Asia. ”
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