The minimum wage in Tajikistan, which is only 12 somoni ($ 4), is the lowest among all the CIS countries, which is constantly explained by the consequences of a long civil war and the economic ruin that followed. 64% of the population live below the poverty line, that is, they have a living wage below one dollar a day. From social tensions, the country is saved only by the earnings of labor migrants, of whom there are about 1 million people. According to the State Statistics Committee, the economically active population of the republic is 1 million 900 thousand people; This means that every second able-bodied citizen is a guest worker.
The funds imported by migrants into the country are estimated by economists to be comparable, or even exceed the annual budget of Tajikistan. Without exaggeration, it can be said that their work ensures not only the well-being of their families, but economic and political stability within the country. But every year it becomes more difficult for Tajik migrants to earn these funds. So, in 2002, the Russian Federation adopted the law “On Migration”, which significantly tightened the conditions for foreigners to stay in Russia. After this law came into force, a new concept appeared in the vocabulary of guest workers - administrative expulsion or deportation, which many of those who worked illegally underwent. According to the Representative Office of the Federal Migration Service of Russia (FMS of the Russian Federation) in Tajikistan in 2004, 18 thousand people were expelled from Russia, in 2005 - 10 thousand. The head of the FMS of Russia, Yuri Novikov, said that at all the arrival points of foreigners, at airports, border stations are equipped with railway stations and highways. He said: “The first thing that a person arriving in Russia will have to do is to pass through passport control, in which, in a matter of minutes, a computer base containing all the data on deportees can be determined if a person was deported. And in the event of the discovery of such a fact, he is denied entry into Russia. ”
However, not only deportees can be refused. The database is replenished from various sources, for example, the FSB, the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and other agencies related to offenses. If the border guard has doubts about the authenticity of the passport of the newcomer, or doubts about the availability of livelihoods, he can also refuse to enter without even looking at the database and explaining the reasons for the refusal. There are also “persons of undesirable entry”, that is, people who have committed crimes on the territory of Russia, who were detained for drug smuggling. “These data are closed, and the average citizen cannot go and see if he is on this list. Even employees of our service do not have the right to request data for a specific person. The practice of refusal of entry exists throughout the world, and no explanation is given for this, and disputes on this issue are not allowed, ”says Yuri Novikov.
This was the situation in which the resident of Kulyab, Jahongir, who traveled to Astrakhan last summer by train, got into this situation. He drove to Aksaraisk, the first Russian frontier post, from where he was taken off the train and returned. A year ago, Jahongir was detained in St. Petersburg by a policeman who discovered the lack of registration. The fast court made a decision on deportation, which was marked on the passport. Returning home, Jahongir announced the loss of a passport and received a new one, with which he went again to Russia. A resident of Dushanbe Farhod borrowed $ 300 to fly to Moscow, where upon arrival he turned to a private company to register, paying another $ 100 for this. On the second day, the policemen who stopped him discovered that registration and registration were forged. As a result, Farhod was expelled from Russia, and for 5 years he has no right to enter there, and he does not know how to earn a living from his family. In addition, Farhod need to repay debts.
The overwhelming majority of the deportees cannot find work in their homeland that at least provided for the lives of their families. “It’s impossible to live for five years at a salary of $ 20 with a family of nine. At the time it would be possible to borrow money, but how to live for five years without a normal salary? - asks Jahongir. “I must go to work again by any means.”
According to the Department of Civil Status Acts of Tajikistan, over the past year 2,344 people changed their last name. The head of the office, Rajabmo Kasymova, reported that at present there is a sharp increase in those who want to change their last name. These are people who have already “lit up” outside their own country. “Of course, we guess about the true reasons, but when we try to find out, young people start talking about the desire to perpetuate the name of the grandmother or grandfather, they bring in confirmation of many arguments, showing enviable perseverance. As a result, compared with the first quarter of last year, the number of people who changed their last name during the same period of this year has almost doubled: from 425 people in 2005 to 798 in the current one, ”she said. The deadline for changing the name is three months, in some cases it can be extended. But young people do not want to spend time on a long procedure for registering a name change, and are willing to pay well to quickly get a passport. A resident of Dushanbe, a migrant with 11 years of experience, said on condition of anonymity that, having paid a certain lady to $ 120, a week later he became the owner of a passport for another name. And three days later I flew to Yekaterinburg, and quietly worked there for over a year.
“Of course, I really need money, but I don’t want to lose the name of my ancestors forever,” he says. - After all, it is not normal when my children and I will have different surnames. At home I live by my last name, and in Russia I work under a different one. I do honest work, and I don’t interfere with anyone, ”he says.
Approximately the same reason, and many other men who are forced to earn away from their homeland. But there is, unfortunately, this phenomenon has a negative side. According to official data, some people who have committed crimes and who want to hide a previous conviction or evade retribution act in the same way. Replacing a passport, they hide a conviction, but not always with it are on the path of correction.
Rajabmo Kasimova reported that letters from Russian law enforcement agencies came to the Office asking to verify the authenticity of passport data, place of residence and other data. “Recently, information from the Ministry of Internal Affairs came from the Nenets Federation that 9 people who were previously detained for criminal actions again came into their field of vision, but it turned out that all of them have other names and surnames. There were also requests from Novosibirsk. ”
The problems of the deportees also fall on transport companies. The director of the Dushanbe airport, Mirzo Anvarov, said that according to the agreements between carriers, the carrier is obliged to deliver the passenger back in case he is denied entry to the territory of another country. And there are quite a few such cases: last year the number of deportees was 780 people, but only for three months of this year it is already 210. Compared with the same period last year, their number increased from 160 to 210, which is more than 30%. Inspector of the claims department of the Dushanbe International Airport Nadezhda Borisova said that the border guards of Domodedovo Airport confiscate the documents of the “objector” and transfer them to the crew of the aircraft, which delivers them back. “Only units pay for return flights. The rest write statements that they have no money, they borrowed for a ticket, now they are in debt, the family is big, there’s nothing to live on and so on. They are asked to return the documents, promising to pay as soon as their situation improves. And many don't even come for a passport, and now we have about a hundred passports in our department, ”she said. The cost of the flight is $ 270-300, depending on the route, and for Tajiks it is a very significant amount, and therefore there is non-payment.
A similar situation develops on the Tajik Railway (TZD). According to the head of the passenger service, Tahir Khodzhayev, 2-3 people return from each train due to the denial of entry, and about 60 people per month. But the peak departure of migrants is still ahead. According to the border guards working for the Tajik Railways of Dushanbe, the number of those who returned to Tajikistan is much smaller, since many at their own risk make their way into Russia illegally. Those who return also suffer losses, since the cost of the ticket is about $ 170.
The situation with the return of migrants is at the very beginning of its development, as many have not yet realized the seriousness of what is happening, and they hope that the fake passport will solve all their problems. Meanwhile, Article 24 of the Constitution of Tajikistan states that a citizen has the right to free movement, including travel outside the republic. The country's law “On Migration” states that the procedure for labor migration is determined by the government of the country. It noted that travel outside Tajikistan is carried out at its own expense. Alas, in life not only travel, but also the attempt of such costs for migrants a lot of money, and with the prospect of a miserable existence in their homeland.
There is also the Concept of labor migration in Tajikistan, which recognizes that the state is not able to provide employment to the working population of the country, and the departure of migrants abroad "is a reflection of their constitutional rights in terms of employment." The concept at the government level recognizes a number of benefits of labor migration, ranging from alleviating social tensions to improving welfare and alleviating poverty problems.
Despite the official and public recognition of the merits of migrants, they remain alone with their problems. None of the government departments that are directly related to migration issues provides them with real assistance. Usually they are engaged in research and educational activities with a very ephemeral benefit for people on whose shoulders the stability of the state rests. The declared free departure from the republic turns into significant financial losses and moral shakes. Of course, the Government of Tajikistan cannot force another country to allow entry to “persona non grata”.
When asked about the possibility of using the computer base data, Yuri Novikov replied: “I see the following scheme: the FSB of Russia needs to establish strong contacts so that your border guards will be given information on the deportees and persons undesirable for entry. Employees of the Department for Combating Illegal Migration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Migration Service come to us, and I was pushing them all to solve this problem. But I'm not sure that your border guards need it. ”