About four centuries in Kazakhstan there is a division according to zhuzam. There are three of them: senior, middle and junior zhuzy. According to the legends, each of the three zhuzes has its direct purpose in this world.
The elder zhuz are god rulers: presidents, governors, directors and chiefs. Since ancient times, the oldest zhuz occupied the south-eastern part of Kazakhstan. Rod Shapyrashty lived near Almaty. Dulats and canals are included in the senior zhuz. The most numerous in the senior zhuze is the genus Dulat.
However, it should be noted that the senior positions of the senior zhuz are sometimes artificially created. Many young officials complain of so-called tribalism, which does not allow them to achieve a high position. Although there are quite a few exceptions. For example, the current akim (mayor) of Almaty, Imangali Tasmagambetov, is from the younger juz. According to many, this fact is the most important obstacle on his way to a possible presidency.
Middle Juz - akyns, poets, scientists, critics, artists. The average Zhuz occupied the central part of Kazakhstan. The structure of the middle zhuz included such famous personalities as Chokan Valikhanov, Abai Kunabayev, Mukhtar Auezov, Kobylandy Batyr, Kazhymukan Baluan. The middle Zhuz includes the current Minister of Culture and Information Yermukhamet Yertysbayev, a native of Karaganda, as well as the Minister of Defense, Colonel General Aviation Mukhtar Altynbayev.
Junior zhuz - defenders of the fatherland. Junior zhuz occupied - the western part of Kazakhstan. And, despite its name "junior", this zhuz is the most numerous in its composition. The junior zhuz consists of three main clans of the clan: the alimules, baiuls, and zhetra. The composition of the younger zhuz included the batyrs Isatai and Makhambet, as well as such famous people as Sagyrbaev Kurmangazy, Dina Nurpeisova, etc.
There are also two other clans that do not belong to the three existing clans. It is a torus and a skin. According to several sources, the Arabs are considered the ancestors of these two famous tribal clans. According to Kazakhstani researchers, the representatives of these two genera brought a new script to Kazakhstan, and with it a new teaching. Therefore, people from these tribal clans were called wise teachers. The current head of the national company Kazatomprom, Mukhtar Dzhakishev, belongs to this famous family.
This clan structure is a distinctive feature of the Kazakh people, the pride of the Kazakhs. And also plays the role of a certain guidebook on the history of the origin of each Kazakh. After all, each tribal clan has its own unique history and its own unique differences.
In the context of globalization, clan prejudices acquired new features and concepts. In each region of Kazakhstan, clan prejudices are specific and far from identical. This is primarily due to the fact that the north of Kazakhstan is more urbanized, and the south-eastern parts of the country are more traditional, conservative. Often, the younger generation in Kazakhstan is absolutely indifferent to Zhuzes and to what genus they belong to. But of course not all young people hold this opinion. In the south-eastern regions, belonging to a particular zhuz is a source of pride. Knowing which zhuz you belong to, often helps the Kazakhs not only to know their past, but also their future from the family tree. Here, for example, in the Karatorgay region lives the Kemtaubayev family, which belongs to the middle Zhuz, the Kipchak genus, and is subdivided into another genus called Karakoyl. The fact is that it is in this clan clan that several generations of folk healers are born every time. And now for several generations, along with modern medicine, members of this family have been treating people. Knowledge of one’s own horde, family and its characteristic features is a message from past generations, from which each Kazakh will be able to take something useful for himself and those around him.
The three-room structure and in modern conditions exerts its influence on the daily life of the Kazakhs. This is expressed in existing recommendations or signs that are passed from generation to generation in each of the 3 zhuz. Here are some of the most interesting and useful:
- Every real Kazakh should know his ancestors to the seventh generation (zhe ata). This information was also useful in order to prevent marriages between relatives. According to legends, a child conceived from blood relatives is in most cases born mentally retarded;
- A real Kazakh should respect his parents and take care of them until the end of their days. It is very important to receive a blessing from your parents; it is this (blessing) that will keep you and bring good luck in business;
- each boy must be circumcised;
- it is recommended to get out of bed with the right foot and with the same foot to step over the threshold of the house, it is also useful to fall asleep on the right side;
- you need to give something with your left hand, and take it with your right hand.
But what is not recommended to do: you can not play with a hat, they say that because of this headache. It is impossible to give knives, daggers, swords, it is believed that the one who presented such an “iron gift” wishes evil or will cause it in the near future. In ancient times, women were not allowed to touch a weapon or a thong of a husband or man before the hunt, it was believed that this would damage the hunt. A woman is not allowed to raise her voice, she should be able to achieve the desired result in other ways. Women can not step over a man. You can not squat down, cover your face with your hands; do not wrap your knees with your hands, do not allow your feet to be above head level. The bride is not recommended to sleep on the bed with the parents of her husband or his brother. You can not look at the mirror at night. Do not feed the knife forward. Previously, women were not allowed to grow their nails, as dirt was collected under them, women for no reason were not allowed to wear a black scarf, which was worn only in cases of mourning, and women were not allowed to stare at the man and to be the first to greet. By this she showed her education and modesty, which is now in high esteem. A man is not recommended to grow hair. A man can not beat a woman, it is believed that the Almighty for it will take away his luck in business. Do not shake hands after washing your hands. You can’t talk badly about dead people or remember them at night. You can not go to bed when there is 30 minutes left until sunset, you will have a headache. It is not recommended to eat pork, etc.
The instructions left by the ancestors, despite their simplicity and, at times, their incomprehensibility, remain useful to this day. For example: scientists have proven that falling asleep on the right side is useful, especially for the heart. And doctors recognize that the ancient rite of circumcision is useful from the purely medical side, for the personal hygiene of every man.
The existing 3-luz structure in Kazakhstan is an integral part of the Kazakhs, and if earlier it was a special form of the socio-political organization of the Kazakhs, today it has become the property of the historical past.
I do not know about the rulers of the Senior Juz, but, as you say, the most numerous in the older Zhuz race Dulatov spawned and historians such as Mohammed Haidar, Sherkhan Murtaza and singers like Altynbek Korazbaeva, Kenen Azerbaev and actors like Tungyshbaya Zhamankulova and heroes like Baurzhan Momyshuly .
Dear editors, I regularly and with interest get acquainted with the materials of your magazine. But today I am extremely disappointed. I was very upset that the material by Nurgul Sarsenova, who pulls at the best on the Internet forum, or the interpretation of the tribal structure of the Kazakhs by some foreign teapot at a student party in Moscow or Wisconsin, is published in the regular media, the materials of which are necessarily checked by the editor . Ms. Sarsenova showed her incompetence as a journalist, because a journalist always checks his sources of information, and does not retell everything that some friends or acquaintances told him. The most blatant mistakes in this article are: 1) The elder zhuz is the rulers of God: presidents, managers, directors and chiefs. The rulers of God from the Kazakhs were Chingizids, because they believed that without His help Temujin could not have won half the world. The elder Juz was considered successful merchants, maybe by managers (although my Zhuz was subordinate to the Kokand khans for a long time), but by no means the RULERS. If now this idea is popularized because of the origin of the current president, then it is not necessary to turn it into a “tradition”. 2) Shapyrashty's genus lived near Almaty. Dulats and canals are included in the senior zhuz. The elder zhuz includes many tribes, incl. my native "Saryuysyn". Shapyrashty is only one of many, never before the 1990s. he did not have special privileges, and even now he does not. 3) The composition of the average zhuz included such famous personalities as Chokan Valikhanov, Abai Kunabayev, Mukhtar Auezov, Kobylandy Batyr, Kazhymukan Baluan. Chokan Valikhanov was Chingizid-tore, and Mukhtar Auezov was skin, i.e. both of them were not part of the Kazakh zhuzes. They were born among the Kazakhs of the Middle Zhuz, but did not belong to them. 4) The middle Zhuz includes the current Minister of Culture and Information Yermukhamet Yertysbayev, a native of Karaganda, as well as the Minister of Defense, Colonel General Aviation Mukhtar Altynbayev. Danial Akhmetov from the Middle Zhuz manages them. 5) And, despite its name "junior", this zhuz is the most numerous in its composition. The most numerous is the Middle Juz. 6) There are also two more tribal clans that do not belong to the three existing ones. It is a torus and a skin. According to several sources, the Arabs are considered the ancestors of these two famous tribal clans. Tore are considered the descendants of Genghis Khan. 7) The current head of the national company Kazatomprom, Mukhtar Dzhakishev, belongs to this famous family (skin or tore?). The selection of figures to illustrate the theses is completely arbitrary. Why not Alikhan Baymenov, for example? 8) In the south-eastern regions, belonging to a particular zhuz is a matter of pride. Do not judge only by Almaty. In Atyrau or Karaganda, you will also find tribalists. But Shymkent is not the southeast at all. 9) Knowledge of which zhuzu you belong to, often helps the Kazakhs not only to know their past, but also their future from the family tree. Esoterica went? 10) Here, for example, in the Karatorgay region lives the Kemtaubayev family, which belongs to the middle Zhuz, the Kipchak genus, and is divided into another genus called Karakoil. What kind of Karatorgay region is this? where is it? 11) Every boy must be circumcised. This tradition has nothing to do with zhuzam. So do all Muslims. 12) it is recommended to get out of bed with the right leg and with the same foot to cross the threshold of the house, it is also useful to fall asleep on the right side. Same. 13) It is not recommended to eat pork, etc. Kazakhs are a unique people! maybe the Jews also have zhuzes and tribes? Nurgul, do not be lazy. Read the "History of Kazakhstan", volume 2, at least. Not the old Soviet one, although there, probably, there is info, but the new Kazakhstani, of the Institute of History and Ethnology of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in a solid green cover.