In Turkmenistan, the next and, it seems, the last exodus of ethnic Kazakhs to their historic homeland began. And the first families of the Kazakhs, born and raised in Turkmenistan, began to leave this land, which became their homeland, in the early 90s of the last century, when a parade of sovereignties began throughout the former USSR. The Kazakhs, who occupied rather high posts in state administration offices, in prosecutor’s offices, in structures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of National Security, in court instances, as well as intellectuals, teachers, doctors, artists, artists ...
The second wave of immigrants fell in the middle and the end of the nineties - then those who occupied the most profitable positions in the field of logistics and distribution reached Kazakhstan. The 21st century, which was proclaimed by the official propaganda of Turkmenbashi as the “golden age of the Turkmen people,” for the Kazakhs began their mass exodus from Turkmenistan. This time, simple workers, cattle-breeders, who lived all their lives in the Kazakh-auls, separately from the settlements, and dekhkans who worked in the cotton fields, began packing their bags. And now the cities and villages of the state of Turkmenbashi are leaving the last Kazakh families, selling their houses and apartments as a matter of urgency.
All these years, the largest outflow of people was observed from the Balkan and Dashoguz velayats of the regions, where, according to the 1989 census, ethnic Kazakhs ranked fourth in numbers after Turkmen, Russians and Uzbeks. At that time there were almost 90 thousand people, or 2.5% of the population of the republic. On the territory of the former Krasnovodsk district, in the vicinity of the workers' village Bekdash, where the local newspaper “Dzhumyschy” was even published in their native language for local ethnic Kazakhs, today you can only see the ruins of the houses of the deserted Kazakh-auls - home buyers not found, so those who left were forced to sell their homes for building materials. As for newspapers, in the mid-nineties, the Turkmen authorities closed down all newspapers that were not published in the state language, including Jumaschi.
The Kazakh collective farms also existed in the October district (now the Saparmurat Turkmenbashi etrap) and the Takhtinsky district (now the Gerogly etrap). Compactly living, people preserved their national culture, traditions and customs, taught children literacy in their native language ... Gradually, schools switched to teaching all subjects in Turkmen. Having orientated themselves in a situation, many parents tried to send their children to get an education in their historic homeland with instructions in the same place and settle down after receiving a diploma. Their parents soon went after the children, and then it was time to pick up the old ones. Today, there are only a few Kazakh families in these farms, and they are already preparing to move to Kazakhstan.
“Before you is almost the last of the Mohicans, I mean of the Dashoguz Kazakhs,” Imangali Sarsenbayev, who arrived at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Ashgabat, jokes. It will take a year or two, and in the Dashoguz velayat we may not even have anyone left. And I will leave, although, frankly, I don’t want to leave, but what to do - all my children and grandchildren are already there, in the west of Kazakhstan, in the cities of Aktau and Aktobe. And here I still kept the graves of the parents. They were born here, lived a long life and remained forever in this land.
In the opinion of a middle-aged Kazakh, the reasons for the mass exodus of his fellow tribesmen from their familiar places lie in the policy pursued by the Turkmenbashi regime, which is directed not only against the Kazakhs, but in general against all representatives of a non-titular nation.
No, of course, the Kazakhs were never oppressed by anyone and never openly. Everything happened gradually and gradually. Schools with the national language of instruction, Kazakh newspapers were closed, a little later, the country imposed a tacit ban on employment in the prosecutor’s office, police, state security and all significant posts considered to be managerial, responsible and profitable, non-Turkmen nationalities. The authorities have done everything so that young Kazakhs who have received higher education in Kazakhstani universities and returned home to their parents, could not get a job. There were various reasons: the absentee education was canceled in the country, and with it all specialists with such education were dismissed, then all diplomas obtained outside of Turkmenistan starting from 1993 were illegitimate. The most persistent graduates of Kazakhstani universities, who tried to achieve recognition of their diploma, say, at Chimkent State University, posed an insurmountable obstacle in the form of the Rukhnama exam, and the exam had to be passed in the official language. Young specialists, having understood that in this country no prospect is foreseen, neither for themselves nor for their future children, immediately began to leave for their historical homeland.
Today, there is practically no Kazakh left in government bodies, law enforcement agencies, in the system of health care and logistics. But even fifteen or twenty years ago everything was different, and the Kazakhs occupied quite high posts. According to Sarsenbayev, Kazakhs in the Dashoguz velayat held high and important posts in his memory.
The last argument of the people who have so far vacillated in favor of leaving their native places forever was the cancellation of the Ashgabat-Almaty regular flight a year and a half ago by the Turkmen authorities. If we take into account that the railway communication between the two countries was interrupted a long time ago, then now it became almost impossible to leave the country and come back. The process of departure of citizens of Kazakh nationality was greatly facilitated and accelerated by the fact that the government of Kazakhstan began the practical implementation of the state program to resettle its compatriots in the country. Most Turkmen Kazakhs immediately took advantage of the benefits and advantages offered by this program. Rumors that the Kazakh government gives Kazakhs to all Kazakh family members who have moved there for permanent residence, helps with employment and housing purchase, quickly spread out and reached the most remote and deaf Kazakh auls. Realizing that this is probably the only chance to live with dignity, even the most persistent of the Kazakhs decided to leave.
This new wave of immigrants, according to Sarsenbayeva, will obviously be the last, and it will take with it even those who did not even think yesterday to leave the country, in which, according to local media, the “golden age of the Turkmen people” . But for some reason he no longer deceives the Kazakhs.