Today, it is unlikely that anyone who is leaving to work abroad today will be condemned, and in fact, at one time, at least a dissident label was stuck with this. A joyless monotonous life at home pushes people in search of a better life in a foreign land: poorly paid work, lack of housing and no prospects for getting it, poor quality education, low living standards. In addition, the socio-demographic situation in the country is such that representatives of the weaker sex are most often involved in migration processes. Prevailing quantitatively over the male part of the population, the beautiful half combines the search for work abroad with the search for their female happiness. The majority of the latter tries to explain the fact that in “advanced abroad” it is easier to realize their emancipated views and habits, which here, in southern Kazakhstan, by virtue of the established mentality, are, as a rule, condemned by society.
26-year-old Karina from Chimkent thanked the Almighty for the success she had won. It was possible to sign a contract for participation in the training program of culinary arts in China. The document, according to the girl, included medical insurance, the provision and payment of housing, food, travel back and forth. For a month, she studied cooking in Beijing. All conditions specified in the contract were strictly observed. It seemed that nothing foreshadowed trouble.
“Everything was fine until my passport was taken from me,” recalls Karina. When the alarmed girl after some time demanded the document back, they asked her for a ransom of ... $ 15 thousand. Other unexpected circumstances became clear. It became obvious that the restaurant in which the newcomer should have been hired does not exist at all, and no one could pay her. As it turned out later, Karina was acquired by a competing agency for the same $ 15 thousand that allegedly demanded from her for a passport. In the end, she was forcibly taken to Hong Kong and forced to work in the sex industry. Beatings, imprisonment, hunger - that only did not have to endure during her stay away from their homes. Chinese bosses said they would return her passport if she fulfilled the deadline for commercial sex and would serve clients of restaurants and nightclubs.
The girl miraculously managed to escape and contact the Kazakh embassy. Representatives of the diplomatic corps helped her return home. Now depressed Karina is undergoing psychological rehabilitation. She hardly goes out of depression.
And this is what Askar Ashenov, deputy head of the criminal department of the 3rd police department of the police department of Chimkent, said: “We received a statement that six former pupils of the oblast orphanages disappeared from the hostel. These girls studied in one of the city’s colleges and lived in a dormitory at this school. The statement about their disappearance was submitted by the director of the college. Girls were searched not only in the city, they attracted TV, they called to Almaty, Dzhambul and other regions. They were not anywhere. After some time, one of the fugitives called her sister and said that she was going abroad. The call was from a cell phone. We took note of the phone. And through their channels, they found out who owns it, as well as the telephone contacts of the owner. We managed to detain the owner of the phone. As it turned out, her name is Maya, she is 40 years old. The woman is engaged in healers and fortune telling on cards. Together with her lawyer, she said she did not understand why she was detained. ” Soon, one after another, the fugitives, and there were not six of them, but eight (all orphanages), came to the police. They said that Maya and her friend Sveta were trying to send them to the Emirates for work. The fact that they are actually waiting in a foreign land, the girls learned already in the police. And Maya and her friend Sveta promised the girls that they would be given one and a half thousand dollars a lift overseas abroad. True, the girls were immediately warned that each of them spent eight thousand dollars, and there abroad the girls would have to gradually work out this amount. It is possible that the girls would have been ferried, if not for the operational search, organized by the police. In a short time did not have time to prepare the departing passport. Only two of the eight have reached their 18th birthday. The rest is 16-17 years old. Both girls and police say that in this way Maya and Sveta sent several dozen minors to the Emirates. 18-year-old Anya recalled that Maya and Sveta were telling that they were sending 13-year-olds abroad ... Mostly they are children from dysfunctional families or pupils of orphanages. As it turned out during the investigation, another person was involved in this traffic. This is Maya's brother - Sergey. He worked for some time in the children's home as a disco joke and brought the girls to Maya's house. That she wondered at first, and then offered to go abroad to earn money. Supposedly cards and coffee grounds say that there will be a bright time for girls in life. Those were bought on these words and agreed. Then Svetlana got involved, she took over the organization and transportation of girls across all borders. At first, the girls were to be taken to Russia, where they were to make fake marriage certificates (unmarried young women are not allowed to go unmarked in the Emirates). Then, with these documents, the girls go to Osh (Kyrgyzstan) and through Osh get to the Emirates. According to Ani, Svetlana told them that she had “her people” everywhere. As a result of the police intervention, the pimps were detained, and the girls managed to avoid trouble.
An increasing number of people are eager to go abroad: young people go to study there, are employed by volunteers, wealthy citizens go to travel and relax, the workers - in search of earnings. And none of these categories are insured against falling into the hands of traffickers ...
In order to help people avoid this fate, the telephone hotline +7 (3252) 56-27-32 works in Chimkent. It is organized within the framework of the project “Stop Trafficking in Persons!”, Which is carried out by the Legal Center for Women's Initiatives “Sana Sezim” with the financial support of the Delegation of the European Commission in Kazakhstan. On this phone, at any time of the day, free and confidential, you can get qualified help from a lawyer and psychologist.
“God takes care of the one who is safe,” they say not in vain. Oh, how many do not repeat this phrase within ourselves, the lessons of life we get only through our own mistakes. But in this case we are talking not only about depriving of peace of mind, money, but about the possibility of being sold into slavery in a foreign land. What could be more painful and humiliating?
Three years ago, on one of the websites, information was posted that more than four thousand women from Kyrgyzstan were sold into sexual slavery. None of the state authorities or public organizations involved in the study of this problem, then did not deny this information. Then all were shocked by the volume of the slave trade, but not its reasons. Because in fact the real volumes of the modern slave trade are officially unknown. All data are approximate and compiled from sample surveys.
Meanwhile, in international reports on the modern slave trade prepared by international human rights organizations, Kyrgyzstan appears as a “transit country”. This is what the report of the US State Department states for 2005-2006: “Kyrgyzstan is a source country, a transit country, and increasingly an destination country for men, women and boys exported from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, South Asia for forced labor and sexual exploitation. The victims of forced labor are imported to Kazakhstan (for work in the agricultural sector), Russia (for work in the construction sector) and to China. Kyrgyz and foreign women are trafficked for sexual exploitation in the United Arab Emirates, China, South Korea, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Thailand, Germany and Syria. Kyrgyz boys are trafficked for sexual exploitation in Russia and Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan is increasingly becoming a destination country for women exported for sexual exploitation from Uzbekistan. ”
The southern regions of the country are the most "attractive" for modern traffickers. Virtually transparent state borders, a large density of population and a large percentage of unemployed youth. Separate conversation about sexual slavery, which is common in the south of the country. According to estimates by the Oruha public foundation, “Podruga,” in the southern capital of Kyrgyzstan, about one thousand women of sixteen and older have sex services. Nearly thirty percent of them are residents of the border areas of Uzbekistan.
On February 14, 2006, all local TV channels went around the picture when a flight was detained at the Osh airport, on which girls and women from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan flew to the United Arab Emirates to “earn money”. It was a Boeing 737 aircraft chartered for a charter flight to the United Arab Emirates by Anikai Air. The girls who were in the plane, the slavers had to take out and sell into sexual slavery. When checking the women, it turned out that two of them were citizens of Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, two were minors, and the rest were citizens of Uzbekistan. That was the first such official case of traffic delays. But, this is just one illustrative example of the detention of organizers and participants in traffic. According to the majority of non-governmental organizations, victims of sexual trafficking, and not organizers of trafficking, are almost always accused.
Every year, 600-800 thousand people are sold and bought in the world. Of these, approximately 80% are women and girls and up to 50% are minors. Forms of modern slavery are very diverse. Human rights organization Anti-Slavery International operates with the following classification.
"Debtors" - about 20 million people. These are people who work in the most difficult conditions for a negligible fee to repay a debt that is almost impossible to pay. Sometimes the debt is thus “worked out” by several generations of the same family. This is the most common form of slavery among men who leave for work, mainly to Russia, South Korea or Kazakhstan.
"Brides" - several million people. Women and girls who are forced to marry. In the family of the husband, as a rule, they are used as maids. The so-called tradition of "polygamy" practically "legitimizes" the position of modern sexual slaves as the second or third wife. Parents, trying to improve their financial situation or under pressure from relatives, are forced to go to such a mild form of discrimination.
"Forced workers" - several million people. People who are illegally hired by individuals, organizations or government agencies and are forced to work under the threat of death or violence.
"Slaves" - several hundred thousand people. Separate tribes, castes or groups of the population which for a long time are in the subordinate, in relation to other groups of the population. position As a rule, they are used for the most dirty and low-paid jobs.
"Kidnapped" - hundreds of thousands of people. People who are victims of slave traders who send them to other countries or regions to engage in forced labor.
“Children” - up to 179 million children are engaged in forced labor. This is data from around the world.
Kyrgyzstan has adopted a law on the prevention and combating of human trafficking. But, here the mechanisms of his work are not yet clearly defined. Because it is not clear how to work in the event that the slave trade goes outside the country? Considering the strained relations with neighboring countries on this issue (because neighbors are considered to have no such problem), it is difficult to trace the whole mechanism of the modern slave trade to nip it in the bud.
In the spring of this year, Kubanych Isabekov, a member of the national parliament, asked to find 18 residents of the Zhetyoguz region in the north of the country who, according to their relatives, had been sold into slavery to some people of Georgian nationality for work. After official inquiries sent to the migration services of the Russian Federation, and according to the information of the power structures of this country, it became known: unknown people had sold the citizens of Kyrgyzstan into slavery. This is one of thousands of cases of slave trade in Kyrgyzstan.
In 2005, the Kyrgyz office of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) initiated the initiation of more than 40 criminal cases on the fact of human trafficking. Since 2004, 300 citizens of the republic have been freed from slavery.
To date, the IOM Kyrgyz office employees have reliable information about five Kyrgyz girls sold to Turkey, as well as updating data on five Kyrgyz citizens who are in slavery in China. According to IOM’s Kyrgyz office, of the total number of Kyrgyz people who become slaves, 70% are residents of Osh and Jalalabat oblasts, mostly young women who are forced to look for work abroad, in countries such as Kazakhstan, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia.
Traficking is an English word that most people in the universe understand, meaning exporting women for sex trade. Trafficking in women has become a thriving criminal business, in terms of profitability is in third place after the drug and arms trade. According to the press service of the FBI, the income from illegal human trafficking in the world is $ 9 billion annually. According to estimates by the international non-governmental organization Anti-Slavery International, there are about 200 million people in the world who are actually slaves. According to the UN, annually 700 thousand people fall into slavery.
Liza is 23 years old. This attractive, slim red-haired girl with freckles works as a waitress in one of the many cafes in Tashkent. Lisa, with her refined manners and graceful gait, would like to work as a secretary in some prestigious company, but she does not have a higher education and relevant skills. Two years ago, Liza became a victim of traffic, like thousands of women in Uzbekistan who went abroad in search of financial wealth.
Lisa remembers what happened with reluctance. She says that in 2001 she married, then gave birth to a child. But it so happened that her husband left her and left her alone with a one-year-old child in her arms. There was nothing to live for. Lisa called an ad in a newspaper where attractive young girls were invited to work abroad. Halima, a woman of forty years old introduced herself, told Lisa that she would work in Turkey as a waitress in a restaurant. So Lisa was alone in an unfamiliar country. She realized that she was recruited, and now she will have to work out a debt of $ 5 thousand, engaging in prostitution. Lisa wanted to escape, but she was kept locked up and not allowed to go out. For trying to escape, she was severely beaten and her documents were taken away.
The annual Trafficking in Persons Report, published by the US State Department in June 2006, states that Uzbekistan is a source country and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women sold to the United Arab Emirates, Israel, India, Malaysia, South Korea, Russia, Japan, Thailand and Turkey for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
The collapse of the Soviet Union opened up access to millions of women who could be taken abroad as female sex workers. The Report states that the government of Uzbekistan identified 675 victims of human trafficking in 2006. But according to unofficial data, the real figure can reach up to 15 thousand women.
According to the UN Development Program Officer in Tashkent dealing with traffic issues, the increase in poverty in Uzbekistan forces women and girls to look for work away from home. Most of them have to support their families, so women easily agree to work abroad, which promises them a decent income. The US State Department report on human trafficking states that after 1991, 40-80% of the Uzbek population turned out to be below the poverty line. “The problem of human trafficking can be aggravated if left unchecked,” the report further states. A study by the Samarkand NGO “Ayol” states that this situation is in the hands of those who deceive women. “Talking with women, they pretend to be benevolent and caring. They offer well-paid places as a waitress, governess or home-cleaning woman. Many people dream of such work, eliminating poverty and allowing them to support their families at home. Women grab this chance to get to the rich West, but on the way there a beautiful dream turns into a nightmare. Their passports are taken from them, and the men accompanying them become warders. Women’s carriers threaten, beat and rape them, ”the study says.
Usually, future sex slaves are found through advertisements in a newspaper, where good earnings are offered to young, attractive women who agree to work as dancers or waitresses. Women are recruited through social events, such as photo contests. Another recruitment method is “marriage agencies,” or international dating services. According to Ayol, the most common way to recruit women in Uzbekistan is through friends and acquaintances who enjoy their trust.
One of the important factors of easy slavery is that very often a woman is in the country illegally. The official documents on which the potential victim arrived were selected or lost their validity period. A woman is informed that she is in an illegal situation in the country and this can lead to many negative consequences. Therefore, such a woman herself is interested in avoiding contacts with the authorities. In such cases, it is impossible or problematic to exercise any legal protection for the victim. It is not surprising that, being deeply intimidated, having gone through blackmail and threats, victims of sex work, even when returning to their homeland, very rarely venture to go to the justice authorities regarding pimps and testify against them in the courts.
At present, the Criminal Law of Uzbekistan does not contain a specific article for organizing traffic, and criminals are held accountable for recruiting people for further exploitation and fraud. The authors of the annual Trafficking in Persons Report, published in 2006 by the US Department of State, have listed the republic on the list of countries that are not making serious efforts in the fight against human trafficking. “The government of Uzbekistan has made very little progress in law enforcement efforts to combat human trafficking over the past year. In 2005, 148 human traffickers were convicted, ”the report says. The government of Uzbekistan has not approved a national action plan to combat trafficking in persons and has not provided any financial and other assistance or material and technical support to the country's only shelter for victims of trafficking.
Research by Ayol, an NGO, found that women who were enslaved had serious problems, often life-threatening. The study claims that women suffer from infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, violent injuries, drug or alcohol addiction, depression and other mental health problems as a result of injuries. High risk of contracting AIDS and syphilis, inability to have a child in the future, risk of physical and mental injuries, damage to the genitals, risk of being killed, or getting acute exacerbation of chronic diseases due to late treatment or lack of treatment. Working in an atmosphere of violence and disorderly connections, living under the constant threat of deportation, arrest, beatings, and even murder by criminal groups - all this causes severe psychological disorder.
“Many women victims of smugglers say that, having survived this, they have completely changed. Some of them always have a weapon to protect themselves. Others are under constant supervision and are treated by psychiatrists. Chronic stress from being in a criminal situation, forcing the owners to use alcohol and drugs can lead to drug or alcohol addiction, ”the study says.