Touching on the topic of the Soviet Union, almost no attention is paid to the very interesting, but almost completely unexplored, phenomenon of art - social art, or rather the calls and slogans present in the propaganda posters. In addition to the textbook "Glory of the CPSU" and "Did you sign up to volunteer?" There were thousands of slogans, somehow conveying to the masses the position of the authorities, appeals, warnings, or simply useful information.
Throughout the entire epoch of socialism, a whole galaxy of ideologues, whose leitmotif was the voice of the party, constantly “hunted” on the minds of the people. Soviet poster, as the genre appeared and died almost immediately - in the 20s of the last century. The pioneers of the opposition of the “state best” to the rest of the worst were Vladimir Mayakovsky and Alexander Rodchenko, who largely determined the style and tendencies of the entire agitation of those years. It was in fact not even a concept, but a whole style of new life - rectangles, rulers, question and exclamation marks. In place of slogans like “Down with darkness and ignorance of the yoke — any study book in the State Publishing House” came pseudo-commercial messages for “a wide range of consumers” such as “Fly Aeroflot airplanes” and the main “brand” - “Glory to the CPSU”. The effectiveness of pioneering messages and chants was tested on the masses.
The new Brezhnev ideology did not borrow either the constructive vanguard of the founders or the accumulated experience of the powerful Stalin-Khrushchev agitprom. They clearly did not fit into the moderate politics of the era, the beloved stagnation of all. Although, in fact, nothing has changed dramatically.
The very history of the emergence of socialist posters dates back to the beginning of the last century. It is very interesting to observe the historical formation of the country through agitlosungs. For example, after the civil war, an important direction of state policy was the fight against child mortality and the protection of motherhood and infancy. Accordingly, posters like: “Nipples-chewing-gum - killed more peasant children than soldiers' bullets” appeared everywhere, “Mothers, don't throw children! Go to the Social Assistance Councils - they will help you there ”,“ Mothers, feed the children with breast milk. Rickets is an English disease. ”
Thus, the power of the Bolsheviks wanted not only to increase the demographic level after the four years of the war, but also to involve the people in the prospects of the future, by means of a well-chosen image - the family. In other words, there is a clear belief that, contrary to the precepts of Marx-Ilyich - the ideal formed the material - through ideology, the authorities tried to solve even demographic problems.
The next block of appeals is devoted to the social problems of the 1930s - the fight against drunkenness, the observance of sanitation and hygiene, the fight against homelessness, again the theme of motherhood. This era was marked by the NEP, industrialization, collectivization, the beginning of the era of the five-year plans. The party put out mega-plans, she was interested not only in numbers, but also in the physical, political well-being of the population.
In specialized institutions, the poster is firmly entrenched as a means of information, advertising, health and medical education: "Go to the bath after work", "Wash windows in a timely manner", "Drinking schoolchildren learn worse than non-drinkers." And at the end of the decade, when abortions were banned, mothers were reminded, including that “our children should not have diarrhea”.
After the war, the country felt another attack - poisoning with ethyl alcohol. On railway tracks from the northern and Siberian timber industry enterprises, hydrolytic alcohol was loved by front-line soldiers. The terrible inscription "poison" did not frighten anyone. Soon a warning poster appeared with the slogan - “Do not drink methyl alcohol”. Among the calls for post-war youth, the slogan “sign up in the circles of miners” was popular. In those years, the military profession of a miner assumed training in mining and searching for installed mines. The country got rid of the consequences of the war.
In the 1950s, appeals within the framework of the Cold War propaganda campaign were very popular: “Do not chat on the phone, talker is a find for a spy”, “Do not pet”, “Talk - help the enemy”, “Talker is a find for the enemy”, “They only have for the rich abundance. And we strive for abundance for all ”,“ Catch up and overtake ”.
But at the same time, the 50s were marked by the formation of an atmosphere of friendship with the Chinese people. After the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Soviet Union, despite the difficulties associated with post-war reconstruction, provided great support to the PRC. At this time, a series of public posters with the proclamation of friendship between representatives of the two peoples: "Long live friendship between the peoples of the USSR and China", "Our experience - help friends", "Any child - yellow, black, white, let them grow and go out life bravely," "Friendship forever," "Peace to the children of the world."
The 60s are also famous for mass “cosmonautization”. A series of postcards and posters devoted to this topic is being published, for example, “We are friends and create, and we are establishing peace in space”.
There were also slogans that were intended for individual target groups, both professional and age, who did not have temporary appointments. “The sniper strikes from afar, but always for sure”, “Spade is a friend of a soldier”, “Milkmaids, we will achieve high yields from each forage cow”, “Drawing lessons, music and singing, schoolchildren’s culture, no doubt increase”, “Bread by lunchtime in take a measure - he is a jewel, they don’t litter "," Be ready! - Always ready!".
Political slogans occupied a special place of honor and carried the socialist ideology of that era. It was they who sunk deeper and stronger than all into memory because of their most frequent use. "Glory to the CPSU", "The Party - the mind, honor and conscience of our era", "The people and the party are one," "Lenin's Testaments are true", "Peace, Labor, May", "Party plans - plans of the people", "Decisions of the CPSU Congress into life "," Banner of the world - the banner of socialism. "
The artist, director of the AVA design bureau, Andrei Goncharov, says in this connection that “the impact of Soviet slogans on the masses was directly proportional to the complete indifference of the working people. Moreover, everyone understood it, probably, including authors and inspirers, but they could no longer stop - it was too customary to supply the population with calls and wise sayings. It was good for all of this, it was only us, the designers, who work no end, despite the obvious immunity not to notice all this propaganda of those for whom it was replicated in countless quantities. There was such a time - general employment and jokes about it. And now this is not all for a good fifteen years. But the roofs and streets of our cities are not empty - they are also full of people and they are calling for them. And the new slogans resemble something, continuing the "holy" business, causing the same associations and complete indifference. And this, not to mention, about the election campaigning, pasted even on the doors of their own apartments. The same promises, the same nonsense ... ".
According to the analyst of the Central Asian Foundation for the Development of Democracy, Oleg Sidorov, the political slogans of the Soviet era did not just go into oblivion, but were transformed from ideology into a business environment, into so-called slogans.
Now, according to the political scientist, they are working not for broad layers, but for narrow audience of consumers. “I,” admits Mr. Sidorov, “have a acceptance, a warm attitude towards the Soviet slogans, they played a big role, as they concentrated a certain thought in a clear and understandable form.”