In Tajikistan, one in three earns a living outside their own country
Economists claim that the money imported by labor migrants into the country is equal to the annual state budget of Tajikistan, which is about $ 420 million (2005). Last year, labor migrants only transferred $ 270 million through banks, about the same amount is imported in cash. Without exaggeration, it can be said that their labors ensured economic and social stability within the country. But every year it becomes more difficult for them to raise these funds.
From May 24 of this year, the decision of the heads of state of the Eurasian Community members on the procedure for travel of citizens to the countries of this union only on the provision of foreign passports will come into force. Thus, the majority of Tajik labor migrants staying on the territory of the Russian Federation without passports are facing deportation from this country.
The Tajik authorities are making every effort to facilitate the possibility of obtaining passports for migrant workers. Currently, in five Russian cities, consular departments have been opened in which migrants who have an employment contract with an employer and are officially registered in Russia can receive a passport. But the problem is that the number of migrants with legal registration and employment is negligible. In addition, the exact number of Tajik labor migrants has not yet been established.
According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Shark Center, the number of external labor migrants, depending on the season, ranges from 500 thousand to 1 million people. However, the head of the migration service under the Ministry of Labor and Social Employment of the Republic of Tajikistan, Anvar Babayev, does not confirm this data. According to him, more than 350 thousand labor migrants are officially registered throughout the country, of which about 337 thousand are in the Russian Federation. Babayev explains such a large gap in the calculations by the fact that the IOM calculations include so-called shuttles, which are included in the category of economic migration and have nothing to do with labor migrants.
Yury Novikov, Head of the Representative Office of the Federal Migration Service of Russia in Tajikistan, does not have exact data: “The figures are estimated. There is no clear statistics, because the entry is carried out by different channels. I hope that the situation will become clearer with the introduction of foreign Tajik passports, which, according to Tajik authorities, about 150 thousand have been issued today. ”
In order to clearly present the scale of the labor migration flow, we say that, according to the State Statistics Committee, the number of economically active population of the republic is 1 million 904 people; Taking into account the figures of the Migration Service of Tajikistan, it turns out that every third able-bodied citizen of the republic is a guest worker.
In 2002, the Russian Federation adopted the law “On Migration”, which significantly tightened the conditions for foreigners to stay in Russia. “This is a worldwide practice,” says Novikov, “used by civilized countries to streamline and control migration flows in the area of residence.”
After this law came into force, a new concept appeared in the vocabulary of guest workers - deportation, which many of those who worked illegally underwent.
A resident of the city of Dushanbe Farhod spent the borrowed $ 300 to fly to St. Petersburg, and turned to a private company for registration, paying for it another $ 100. But, on the second day, the policemen who stopped him found that registration and registration were forged. As a result, Farhod was expelled from Russia. Now he has no right to enter the Russian Federation for 5 years and does not know how he will earn a living from his family. In addition, Farhod need to repay debts.
According to Manzura Dzhuraeva, the head of the program for the rehabilitation of persons deported from the Russian Federation since the entry into force of the Russian Law on Migration, about 14 thousand people were deported from the Russian Federation. However, Babayev, the head of the migration service at the Ministry of Labor and Social Employment of the Population of the Republic of Tajikistan, considers these figures to be significantly overestimated, since “... a person deported on the basis of a court decision is deported, and I doubt that Dzhuraeva has 14 thousand orders ".
Experts believe that the legal illiteracy of Tajik migrants is the basis of all the difficulties of this category of persons in the territory of the Russian Federation. This is confirmed by the experience of Dzhuraeva, who showed that migrants, having studied the legislation on migration policy, came to the conclusion that if they knew it earlier, they would not have to try the severity of the Russian law on forced expulsion.
In unison, the head of the office of the Federal Migration Service of Russia in Tajikistan, Yuri Novikov, echoed the same: “Migrants put themselves outside the law. They need to inculcate literacy skills. By law, the migrant must be registered at the place of residence, and have a work permit. If there is not one of these documents, then you are outlawed. ”
Currently, special women number 1 in the city of Moscow for illegal stay in the Russian Federation and violation of the passport regime contain 8 women from Tajikistan. This was reported by Nazokat Muinova, head of the Information and Analytical Department of the State Migration Service (HMS) under the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Tajikistan, who recently returned from Moscow, where she held a week-long internship on training specialists in migration issues with her colleagues.
“Official registration can be obtained if one of the relatives has an official living space,” says guest worker Muzafar Rakhimov, “for the first three months, that is, for the duration of the migration card, and that’s a big question if you will extend it” . The problem of legalization is the huge amount of bureaucratic delays on the part of the authorities that are obliged to register foreigners.
“I honestly tried to legalize my stay in Russia, but, in my opinion, the Russian authorities specifically introduce a system in which it is difficult to legally register,” complains Ismoil, a private cab driver. According to him, it is necessary to collect a large number of documents that, in principle, can not be obtained. For example, a certificate from the owner of the apartment, which by law must be officially registered and pay taxes, but does not want to do it.
It is for this reason that the majority of Tajik migrants are slipping into the category of illegal immigrants, people who are in every way oppressed by all Russian law enforcement agencies. Most migrants suffer from police actions. It comes to the fact that illegal immigrants pay tribute to local militiamen, so that they turn a blind eye to their illegal residence. “There was a case,” says Jahongir, a builder from Moscow, “when I personally, with the consent of our management, repaired the office of the local police chief in Klin. After that, our builders, 80% of which are guest workers from the CIS, were able to freely stay in this city. ”
Thus, Tajik migrants have to endure hard work, extortion not only of the Russian services, but also of resentment from their fellow countrymen. The Tajik transport prosecutor's office reported that an investigation was recently completed regarding several border guards and one customs officer who were involved in extorting money from returning migrants. And yet, most of the migrants, having overcome all obstacles, earn money, supporting the well-being of their relatives, and of the country as a whole. In addition, there are no alternatives to labor migration among Tajik citizens.
In order to more effectively counteract corruption in the field of migration, the Russian side proposes to its colleagues from the CIS countries to create a joint working group to coordinate cooperation at the level of deputy heads of the Interior Ministry’s own security services.
According to expert estimates of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, now there are 560 thousand internally displaced people in Russia, 1.5 million non-CIS citizens without any status. Up to 5 million citizens of the CIS are illegally engaged in labor in Russia.