Migration is beneficial not only to Central Asia, but also to Russia itself.
According to official estimates by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, there are at least 4 million illegal migrants in Russia who are temporary registered. According to unofficial data, their number is about 20 million people. A large number of migrants arrive in the country from Central Asia. Is Russia ready to accept them? What problems are coming and receiving parties facing? About this correspondent. "Oasis" Tahir Chizhov talks with the chief editor of the Spiritual Board of Muslims of the European part of Russia "The Tribune of Islam", PhD, professor, academician, RANS Talib Saidbaev.
What is interesting about migration from Central Asia to Russia?
The bulk of migrants are unskilled workers. And they will occupy those areas in which the Russian youth does not go: trade, construction, agriculture, housing and communal services. That is not prestigious or underpaid industry. Central Asia can close this gap.
What explains this desire for Russia?
No matter what they say in Central Asia about national sovereignty, no matter how they scold Russia and the Soviet Union, pro-Russian sentiments are very strong there. Especially they have intensified due to the deterioration of the socio-economic situation.
Central Asia has spent over a hundred years in Russia and the Soviet Union. And it left its mark. The population of this region, Russia is not perceived as a “foreign” country and has never been a hostile country in their understanding. Otherwise, people would not come to Russia. They are not going to Muslim countries, they are not looking for a way in the Arab countries, which would be more logical.
But there is also the simplest explanation. For the peoples of Central Asia, Russia is the way to feed. This is the only country where they can go, being sure that they will earn at least a small salary (by Russian standards), but for some Central Asian countries it will be enough to support themselves and their families.
What are the problems of migrant adaptation in Russia?
There are two main problems - the adaptation of migrants to Russia and the adaptation of Russians to visitors. We talk all the time about the adaptation of migrants. But the problem of misunderstanding and rejection is complicated by the rejection of the Russian population to visitors.
The fact is that Russia, being a multinational state, was in an absolute majority of its territories purely Russian. Other nationalities lived and live in their conditional territories. And in the majority the Russian population is not accustomed to living alongside representatives of another nation.
And let's not hide, the Russian people have not only a great “wide soul”, but there is also a strong feeling of an “elder brother” who is used to everyone learning his language, so that everyone adapts to his way of life. There is nothing surprising. I do not blame the Russians for impatience with others. The same was under the Soviet Union, the people of Central Asia took time to get used to the Russian-speaking population.
What are the specific problems of Muslim migrants?
Here the situation is complicated by the problem of Islam. This is due to the hysteria around Islam, which is conducted in the media. And the Russian population, who has not yet lived next to Muslims, is formed in advance by a distorted view of Muslims as terrorists and intolerant to followers of other religions. And Muslims from Central Asia immediately meet with these prejudices. Once again I can say Russian can be understood. People of another appearance, another language, another culture. Yes, today Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kyrgyz from villages come to Russia, where there was no communication with the Russian population either. This creates many social and psychological problems.
But not only the adult population faces problems, but also children whose parents live and work in Russia.
The large scale of migration affects not only the adult population, but also children. For example, in the south-eastern district of Moscow, 16% of schoolchildren are not Russian.
I ran into this issue in the mid-90s. I met with the education workers of Moscow, and one head of the kindergarten said: "Yes, the heads of our children have blackened." In this regard, the methods of education should be refined and in some cases revised. The thesis that Russia is a historically multiethnic and multi-confessional country, repeatedly voiced by the Russian president, should be reflected in textbooks.
Now the Russian schools have begun to introduce the foundations of Orthodoxy. Do you think that does not infringe upon children of other religions?
First, no religion has trained priests to properly teach the basics of religion in children's educational institutions.
Secondly, the introduction of religion in school - is explosive. Any religion is based on the truth of its own teachings and the correct understanding of God by the followers of this religion only, and not the other. The state should not teach to believe. This is a matter of family, religious organizations. This is not a school matter. The school should teach to see the common in religions, to teach the moral community of religions.
What organizations do you think should deal with the problems of migrants?
At the moment, there is practically no self-organization of migrants. The bill goes to hundreds of thousands, to millions of visitors, but there are no centers that would protect the rights of migrants. Religious organizations could do a lot for the mutual adaptation of the local population and visiting Muslims. Interfere, as it is not strange, the position of the ROC. The first difficulty that Muslim migrants face is the registration of a community. And very often, opposition is provided by the local Orthodox hierarchs. Recently, the Islamic Human Rights Center critically commented on the speech of the Voronezh diocese. It said that Voronezh has always been a primordially Russian region and there Islam is alien and not a place for Muslims.
However, there are positive examples, for example, in Ivanovo. But at this stage these are purely local manifestations of private initiative of progressively minded clergymen. Muslim organizations also need to rethink their approach. For hundreds of years, Tatars have been living in Russia. Ten years ago, the Tatars were an absolute majority of the Muslim community. But now the national composition of the Muslims of Russia has changed. According to the official census, only in Tver there are 20,500 Muslims, of which only 6,700 Tatars. Unfortunately, Muslim figures do not understand this. They, as before, continue to consider themselves Tatar muftii and work mainly with the Tatar population.
I also think that the countries themselves should pay more attention to the issues of the stay of their citizens in Russia. Now there are shifts on the part of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, but so far we have no purposeful state policy on the part of the Central Asian states.
What measures do you think should be taken at the state level in Russia?
The mistake of the Russian state is that the problems of migrants are in the hands of the police. A huge number of obstacles, often artificial, were created on the way to obtain registration at the place of stay. Undoubtedly, registration is needed - this is a generally accepted system for recording migration processes. But it is not so worked out that many visitors are forced to acquire fake registration documents. My opinion is that the problem of migration should be considered at a very high state level. A special body should be created that would study the need for labor resources, plan transportation, control the provision of housing, work, etc.
Migration to Russia from Central Asia did not begin after 1991. In the 1980s, when labor resources in the region were already in abundance, Uzbeks were brought to the central zone of Russia (Vladimir Oblast, Ivanovo Oblast, Kalininsk Oblast) and Uzbek state farms (Fergana, Namangan) were created. The Tashkent Hall, decorated by Tashkent masters, is still preserved in Ivanovo at the Ivanovo Hotel. Purposefully formed construction teams arrived. In Siberia, the construction and assembly train worked on one of the giant construction projects.
This gives reason to think not about migration on an individual basis, but about well-coordinated resettlement of groups to the territory of Russia. There is information that the governor of the Penza region. Bochkarev invited the former Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan Tanayev, who will deal with relations with Central Asia and that it is a question of purposeful resettlement to rural areas of the Penza region. Central Asian peoples are good peasants. And such prepared mass migrations are beneficial for Russia and Central Asia.
I know this shit Mr. Saidbaeva. I know his works. Russia has everything for Russians. Immigrants tend to come here because there is no good in their country. There is no Islam. There is no policy. There is no economy. Tired of heartbroken people come here — they are not animals, they are not sorry. im happiness on this earth