Since 1999, Turkmenistan has imposed a moratorium on the death penalty. At the same time, the phrase “The death penalty in Turkmenistan was completely abolished and permanently banned by the first President of Turkmenistan, the Great Saparmurat Turkmenbashi” was added to the constitution. Even for his personal enemies, Turkmenbashi made no exception. After the capture of all the participants in the attempted coup d'état in November 2002, and despite the demand of the “general public” in the face of students, aksakals, ministers, housewives and the entire population of Turkmenistan, this rule remained intact and the death penalty was replaced by all revolutionaries - who is 25 years old, to whom life imprisonment.
But the whole “humanistic” picture could convince everyone that the power in Turkmenistan is actually humane, if history did not know otherwise. In May 1992, the execution of Aimurad (A. Nuryev) - the thief in law, as they say, “authority”, and his accomplices were broadcast on national television and caused a shock in society and was perceived as a direct warning to anyone who dared to compete with power in the "authority". But at the same time, the entire statistics of the death penalty was so classified that experts and human rights activists still give different data on the number of people shot in Turkmen prisons from 1991 to 1999, when the death penalty was abolished in Turkmenistan. So according to human rights organizations, 102 people were shot in Turkmenistan in 1992, in 1993 - 114, in 1994 - 126, in 1995 - 134, in 1996 - 400, according to the only available data, the same number of executions by mid-1997. Amnesty International cites the following analogies in this regard: “... For example, in China in 1994, capital punishment was applied in the 1791st case. This figure is approximately 14 times the unconfirmed number of death penalty cases in Turkmenistan in the same year 1994, but the population in China is more than 226 times more than in Turkmenistan. ” The specific number (per capita) of executions of death sentences in Turkmenistan was more than 16 times higher than the rate of such cases in China!
But something prompted the authorities to abolish the death penalty in 1999, and in the same year to adopt the law “On annual amnesty” in honor of the holy night “Gadir Gejesi” (“Night of Omnipotence”). But this attack of humanity did not affect the situation of prisoners in prisons and the SIZO; on the contrary, it was from that time that the prison regime, secrecy and everything connected with the justice system and the penitentiary system sharply increased. The practice of closed courts was introduced, relatives of many prisoners were stopped to give out information about their whereabouts, many were refused visits and transfers. According to the released prisoners, it was at this time that the number of prisoners sharply increased, which led to overcrowding in prisons. And then a new prison, Ovadan-Depe, was laid, which became a terrible symbol, the crown of Turkmen "justice." The rumor that the horrific conditions of detention and punishment in the Turkmen prisons, beatings and placement in a punishment cell, were supplemented by information about the existence of “humpbacked cells” in the prison, one and a half meters high, intended for the prisoner's permanent stay. After Niyazov’s death, authorities rushed to demolish it, knowing that sooner or later international observers would have to be allowed there. The situation in Turkmen prisons has long been a concern of international organizations. Representatives of the Red Cross constantly and persistently ask the authorities to allow them to places of detention, but each time they receive a categorical refusal.
And worries, there is because of what. Only known cases of death in custody make you wonder. In the year when the death penalty was banned, Khoshali Garayev, one of those convicted in the case of “attempt” on Niyazov in 1995 and recognized by Amnesty International as a prisoner of conscience, died in prison. This was followed by a series of deaths in prisons of high-ranking officials, who had fallen into the category of Niyazov’s personal enemies - the former chairman of the National Security Committee Mohammed Nazarov and the former chairman of parliament Tagandurdy Khallyev. In 2006, Ogulsapar Muradova, a journalist with Radio Liberty, died. But these are only known cases, these are only famous people.
The testimonies of the released say that the whole category of “enemies of the people” and “traitors to the motherland” is doomed to slow dying. In the women's colony of Dashaguz, there is a special type of work for "political" and their relatives - this is combing wool. And this is done without any special adaptations and measures of health protection. Experts say that such work is a 100 percent guarantee of infection by pulmonary parasites whose cysts are in the wool. Geldy Kyarizov, another of Niyazov’s enemies, is extremely depleted after being transferred from Ovadan Depe to one of the other colonies. Overcrowding in the cells, the presence of people with tuberculosis in the same premises with healthy people as punishment, punishment with heavy work, sleep deprivation, constant moral and psychological pressure, intolerable conditions of detention, especially during the summer months, are all targeted deprivation of health and life. the death penalty stretched in time.
After Niyazov’s death in Turkmenistan and beyond, not only changes are expected, but also visible evidence. Free access to the Internet as a symbol of the new time is, of course, good, but the people are not expecting that. The minor corrections of Niyazov’s leprosy and eccentricities will seem the same eccentricities of the new power until justice, violated by the past power, is restored. The list can be very long. This is compensation for the demolished housing, it is an opportunity to replenish education, but the main thing is to return the illegally taken away freedom to people. For Turkmen conditions - illegally taken away life.
According to Amnesty International, currently 89 states and territorial entities have completely abolished the death penalty; 10 states have abolished the death penalty for all crimes, except for particularly serious ones, such as war crimes; 29 states do not apply the death penalty in practice: the legislation of these states provides for a similar punishment, but the sentences have not been carried out over the past 10 years or more.
Thus, only 128 states either abolished the death penalty in law, or do not apply it in practice.
Another 69 states retain and apply the death penalty, but the number of countries that actually execute prisoners is decreasing every year.