With the acquisition of independence (1991-1995), some Central Asian states gained the status of the poorest countries. The economic and social state of all Central Asian countries has declined. Poverty and unemployment increased. As a result, the level of migration has also increased, the Central Asian countries have returned to their past: they began to wander. But even nowadays migrants do not migrate inside the country, but from country to country.
A large flow of nomadic migrants was in the early years of independence. For all countries of Central Asia, this time in political, economic and social terms is a transitional period, which has had a noticeable effect on ensuring human security and development. Central Asia was the poorest and most vulnerable region of the Soviet Union, the consequences of the collapse affected the standard of living of the population. With the acquisition of independence, the countries of Central Asia “lost” most of the population due to the economic crisis, people left for the West, and the demographic state was in a critical condition. In the 90s, families and even villages traveled from Kazakhstan. People did not know what other transformations and changes would occur in the near future in independent Kazakhstan. In those years, the young state suffered from the fact that people began to “migrate” away from the country and generally away from the countries of the former USSR. Today, the level of poverty in Central Asia has changed. As expected, the economic and socio-political state of the countries has stabilized, and the flows of emigrants have changed their “course”.
Kazakhstan met the 21st century as a young, promising, and already economically independent state. The flow of migrants, but already in the opposite direction, has resumed. Many families of compatriots returned to their homeland.
“It was not easy for us to get used to the conditions of life to which we once aspired. We are older people, and learning a new language was not easy, and in some cases, unpromising. When I left for Turkey, I didn’t think that I would return to Kazakhstan once. All my life, I firmly believed that I was Turkish, in Turkey everything is different and the language too. We were not taken for "our own", there was no normal work. I worked as a nanny and in the bazaar, and no one dared to take a specialty, ”says Asiya Midilova, who lived in Turkey for two years.
Now Kazakhstan annually evicts more than it accepts. But only illegal immigrants are expelled from the country, most often labor migrants.
“The problem of migration affects the interests of almost all CIS member states. At the same time, the main migration flows within the CIS go to Russia and Kazakhstan. And if Russia is of heightened interest for labor migrants from Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the countries of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, in turn, is attractive in the eyes of migrants from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, political analyst Dosym Satpayev said.
On June 10 of this year, at an informal summit in St. Petersburg, President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan said: “In order not to discuss many issues, we decided that in the first year we will consider the issue on which everyone will come to a common opinion. The first issue Kazakhstan introduced the problem of migration. ” Nazarbayev noted that there are 178 million migrants in the world, and 10% of the 130 million labor resources in the CIS are also migrants. Kazakhstan proposes to the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the coming years to concentrate on cooperation in migration issues. According to the leader of Kazakhstan, it is planned to prepare an agreement of the Commonwealth on migration.
“I believe that this agreement is beneficial, since Kazakhstan is now not only a transit zone for labor migration from Central Asia to Russia, but also a country where a large number of migrants, including illegal ones, also work,” said Dosym Satpayev.
According to various estimates, there are now at least 500,000 illegal immigrants in Kazakhstan, mostly from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. At the same time, the administrative measures toughened in recent times against illegal immigrants in Kazakhstan, many migrant workers who are accustomed to being skeptical of the laws at home, are not an absolute obstacle.
“At home, we are not able to find a job where the salary would be more than $ 100 -200 $. Our builders do not receive such money as I can earn in Kazakhstan. And here it is easy, I live in a warm place, they feed me and the owner is good, ”Bakhtiyar says with some distrust.
But migrants do not consider themselves to be offenders, many of them simply do not know the laws: “I’ve come here to“ build ”your country, I’m not a criminal. I just need to feed my children, family. ” There are a lot of people like Bakhtiyar and these people consider themselves forced migrants.
For reference: forced migration is the territorial displacement of people who left their place of residence as a result of violence or persecution against them or their family members, or because of the real possibility of being subjected to violence or persecution, as well as due to extraordinary circumstances, economic, natural, man-made.