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№ 20 (64) October 2007
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THE AUTHORS
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on       journal [PDF]:
Oleg Panfilov,
project Manager,
panfilov[at]cjes.ru

Dmitry Alyaev,
chief editor,
alyaev[at]cjes.ru

Roman Zyuzin,
webmaster,
webmaster [at] cjes.ru

Adil Dzhalilov,
Kazakhstan,
adild[at]list.ru

a diamond stylus,
Kyrgyzstan,
citizen2005[at]yandex.ru

Nargis Zokirova,
Tajikistan
zokirova77 [at] mail.ru

Representative Names
in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
not disclosed

Lyudmila Burenkova,
technical editor,
lyuda [at] cjes.ru

Elena Dorokhova,
design,
inwork[at]frw.ru
Multiparty uniformity
I wish Janybaev (Jalalabad), Lilia Manşina (Almaty)
KYRGYZSTAN

Due to the fact that the next parliamentary elections in Kyrgyzstan will be held on party lists, parties in the country are growing like mushrooms after rain. Their number is already close to a hundred, and every day the creation of new parties and movements continues. How effective their activities can be checked by looking from the outside at such party building.

According to the new Constitution of the country, as already mentioned above, the future parliamentary elections in the country will be held on party lists, and greater political significance is attached to this fact. The party majority will have the right to nominate themselves as head of government and influence the composition of the government. Thus, a parliament consisting of different parties will be able to shape the future government.

Elections on party lists should exclude the possibility of tribalism and really help women enter the new parliament. Today there is not a single woman in parliament.

The more often they talk about possible parliamentary elections, the more noticeable is the activity of political parties in the country, which may be evidenced by the April rally of two opposition parties of the country “Ar-namys - Honor and Dignity” and “Ata-Meken - Fatherland”. Their main requirements are early presidential elections and constitutional reform. But, it is curious that the leaders of the above parties focused more on their personal political ambitions than voiced ideas and slogans agreed with party members. Thus, during the November 2006 rallies, part of the members of the Ar-Namys - Honor and Dignity Party dissatisfied with the position of its leader Felix Kulov left the party. And there are many such cases of “party migration” in Kyrgyzstan.

According to the chairman of the human rights commission under the country's president, Tursunbek Akunov, parties in Kyrgyzstan are still in a dwarf state. They still need to stand up. Party building is just beginning, because during the rule of ex-President Askar Akayev, political parties in Kyrgyzstan did not have the freedom to act, which is what Tursunbek Akunov says now.

The leader of the Svoboda party, Topchubek Turgunaliev, believes that in Kyrgyzstan political parties can be divided into three groups. The first group - the party, about which no one knows anything, the invisible party. The second group - those parties whose number of members does not exceed five thousand, and they are considered to be national parties. The third group is those parties that are now actively engaged in party building, having some influence in society. According to Topchubek Turgunaliev, today party construction in Kyrgyzstan can be assessed as average.

The head of the government, the leader of the socialist party, Almaz Atambayev, believes that there are only five parties in Kyrgyzstan. These are the Ar-Namys-Honor and Dignity parties (leader Felix Kulov), Asaba-Znamya (leaders Azimbek Beknazarov, Roza Otunbayeva), Union of Democratic Forces (leaders Kubatbek Baibolov, Bakyt Beshimov), Ata-Meken- Fatherland ”(leader Omurbek Tekebayev), Social Democratic Party (leader Almazbek Atambayev).

Unfortunately, party activity in the country is limited to only two central streets of the capital. In the regions, the majority of the population does not have a clear and clear picture of political parties. According to the executive director of the Jalalabat Media Resource Center Bermet Sultanova, political parties in the regions do not show themselves. “For example, in Jalalabat they do not carry out any explanatory work on their party, they do not hold events dedicated to party building. They practically do not cover their activities in the media. From where can people know about them, about their ideas, views? ”Says Bermet Sultanova.

No one can figure out the party situation in the country, because no one can tell how many of the 100 parties registered with the Ministry of Justice of Kyrgyzstan are currently operating. In Kyrgyzstan, there are no serious, independent studies on political parties. There is no monitoring or sociological service for political parties.

The financial sustainability of the parties also influences party stability. Thus, according to the head of the party cell in Jalalabat of the “Commonwealth” party, Olesya Tugusheva, membership fees are barely enough for office expenses. Charity events are held when sponsors finance them. The representative of the Youth Liberal Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan in the Jalalabat region Aichurek Saipova stresses that the lack of financial resources directly affects the political activity of the parties.

In the south of the political parties, the party “Emgek Jean Birimdik - Labor and Unity” is most active. Many believe that this party is financed and supported by the relatives of President Bakiyev and that, in fact, it plays the same role as the Alga Kyrgyzstan-Forward Kyrgyzstan party during the rule of Akayev. But, the leader of this party in the Jalalabat region, Adumalik Bektemirov, denies such accusations. “Those who draw parallels between our party and Alga Kyrgyzstan - Forward Kyrgyzstan are deeply mistaken. Because the latter was created to promote the children of Akayev to the parliament, people were forced to join it. We do not force anyone to join our party. Our party is popular, ”says Abdumalik Bektemirov. Today, only in the Jalalabat region, according to their data, the number of their supporters is four and a half thousand people. The backbone of the party’s leadership is made up of those who headed the campaign headquarters of President Bakiyev during the presidential election in 2005. Practically it can be said that this party of power.

Further, political parties in the small homeland of President Bakiyev are followed by the Freedom and New Kyrgyzstan parties. According to their regional coordinators, the number of these parties in the Jalalabat region is 21,000 and 18,000 members, respectively.

At the same time party bosses complain that their numbers often change, because internal party migration is very strong. People tend to often change their political views, changing parties like mobile phone numbers.

A feature of the Kyrgyz party building is that for the first time in it, an active role is played by Kyrgyz communities living in Russia. Two years ago they created the Unity of Motherland political party on the basis of the Unity public association. According to the coordinator of this party in the south of the country, Batyrbek Abdyrazakov, today their number in the southern region of Kyrgyzstan is over fifteen thousand members. Half of them are women.

Independent journalist Jalil Saparov is pessimistic, saying that the party is a unity of views and ideas. The current parties do not meet the requirements of the time, they have no clear goals, except for corporate ones.

By the way, in the Jalalabat Regional Department of Justice only three parties registered branches: “My Country”, “Alga Kyrgyzstan - Forward Kyrgyzstan” and “Commonwealth”.

KAZAKHSTAN

“Ideological and political diversity is recognized in the Republic of Kazakhstan,” says the Constitution. Indeed, there are as many as 13 parties in the 15-million republic. Or rather, they existed until mid-June, until extraordinary elections were held for the lower house of Parliament - Mazhilis, in addition to the next one - for maslikhats. And all this was preceded by amending the Basic Law of the country and the non-basic Law “On Elections”.

In accordance with the main legislative body, self-nominee entry is now prohibited, but allowed by party lists, but with one condition - overcoming the seven percent barrier.

Apparently this condition so frightened the party leaders that the parties rushed to unite with their former rivals in the electorate. And not just to unite, but to join one another, since, oddly enough, the new rules prohibit the creation of blocks.

Although, perhaps, all the parties simply followed the example of the giant Nur Otan, the People’s Democratic Party, which a little more than six months ago swallowed up three of its smaller counterparts in the pro-presidential electorate, Asar, the Civic and Agrarian parties. By the way, on the eve of the elections, Nur Otan was officially headed by Nursultan Nazarbayev himself, because in Article 5 of the Constitution, by default, the “merging of public and state institutions” is no longer prohibited.

In addition to “Nur Otan”, two more party marriages were formed in Kazakhstan due to the enlargement - the Democratic Party “Adilet” decided to join the Democratic Party “Ak Zhol”, although, apart from the name, they have very little in common and have no experience of working together. This union is strange, if only because the Adilet party, consisting mainly of lawyers and jurists, is pro-government, and Ak Zhol belonged to the opposition. But as we observe, everything flows, everything changes, and the Ak Zhol party now, after the scandalous “divorce” of the party’s chairman Alikhan Baimenov with his former comrades Bulat Abilov, Oraz Zhandosov and the late Altynbek Sarsenbayev, rejected opposition views. According to rumors, this party association is also going to join part of the asset of the unregistered center-right party Atameken, in which a split has recently occurred (2 parties + 0.5 parties).

Another no less interesting and highly anticipated opposition alliance has developed among the already mentioned Abilov and Zhandosov - the Nagyz Ak Zhol party has joined the National Social Democratic Party (NSDP). Here there is a union on the principle - “we are friends against the regime together”, although this is no longer a fact. Arguing about this alliance, we can recall the "horse and quivering doe." This analogy is appropriate in view of the fact that the NSDP by orientation is the Social Democratic Party, and Nagyz Ak Zhol is a liberal one, that is, the right and the left are united. It would seem impossible, since the views of these parties, and accordingly the electorate, are completely different. But in Kazakhstan everything is possible. And no one is surprised by the frequency of party-opposition "divorces" and "weddings", of which there have been plenty over the last couple of years. This duet, which, it should be noted, has already worked together in the presidential elections of 2005, also threatens to become almost a triumvirate. The former leader of the unregistered opposition party “Alga!”, Asylbek Kozhakhmetov, wants to join it. After all, just recently, in Alga!, As in Atameken, there was also a split and Mr. Kozhakhmetov left the party (2 batches + 0.5 batches).

And it is these two small party giants that will qualify for seats in the Parliament and Maslikhats secondarily after “Nur Otan”. Painfully, similar schemes of merging in party-political ecstasy, probably, are guaranteed by the same similar number of seats in representative bodies.

There are other candidates who are ready to take the warm seats of lawmakers. One of these is the Communists, and the very young Communists - the Communist People’s Party of Kazakhstan (CPPK) was formed only 3 years ago, as a result of the breakaway from the oldest Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPC). But for the latter, the Majilis will most likely remain a pipe dream, while the CPPK may take several places.

As for the other parties - “Auyl” - Gani Kaliyeva, “Rukhaniyat” - Altynshash Dzhaganova and the Party of Patriots of Kazakhstan (PPK) - Gani Kasymova, judging by their activities in recent years, one could safely say that the political future they are far away in the past. And the best thing that can happen to them is the infusion into Nur Otan or Ak Zhol. But in the light of recent events, this statement is incorrect, since these parties began to move - themselves or with the help of someone who is very necessary and beneficial to reanimate them. We must assume that they are not unreasonably hoping to get into parliamentary paradise in this election.

Yes, there is still in Kazakhstan the unregistered Democratic Party of Kazakhstan "Halyk Ruhi" ("Spirit of the People") of a national-patriotic kind. But she has not yet announced her parliamentary ambitions, as well as her joining someone.

Thus, thanks to the amendments to the Constitution and the Law "On Elections" today in Kazakhstan we have a huge political monster "Nur Otan", two large "bodies" smaller - "Ak Zhol" and OSDP, four small, but ambitious CPPK, " Rukhaniyat "," Aul "and PPK.

Such is today's party-political portrait of Kazakhstan against the background of intensive preparation for the elective race.

As for the forecasts, as you know, they are ungrateful, but no one doubts that the presidential Nur Otan will receive at least 80%, well, in extreme cases, 70% of the seats in the Majilis. The Ak Zholu will get a little bit with the NSDP - 5-7 mandates each.

And then what? Interest Ask. How will the party bosses behave, forced to marry with other leaders within the same party? That's what the experts think about this. Independent political analyst, president of the Public Foundation “Epicenter” Vitaly Koltochnik predicts the system of Kazakhstan’s deep systemic crisis in the near future, associated “with the monopolization of political influence in the hands of the NDP“ Nur Otan ”. “After the elections, in which the decisive victory will be won by the dominant party of power,“ stagnant bloom ”will bloom, as the development of the political system will be suspended for an indefinite time. Moreover, not only its advantages, but also obvious disadvantages will be preserved. This will definitely lead to the aggravation of intraelite conflicts. If earlier each large influence group had its own mouthpiece - a civil party, a party of farmers, the same Asar, now they are plugged in a common canning political “bank”, where their interests are unlikely to find a worthy way out because of their contradictory behavior. And this guarantees an explosion of contradictions in the very near future. ”
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Moscow Janybaev Mamatkasımovna
[email protected]
16.07.2007, Kyrgyzstan, Jalal-Abad
Hello!!! You have published my article. Thank you for this !!! Sincerely, Anarchan from Jalalabad.
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