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№ 20 (64) October 2007
№ 19 (63) October 2007
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THE AUTHORS
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Oleg Panfilov,
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panfilov[at]cjes.ru

Dmitry Alyaev,
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alyaev[at]cjes.ru

Roman Zyuzin,
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webmaster [at] cjes.ru

Adil Dzhalilov,
Kazakhstan,
adild[at]list.ru

a diamond stylus,
Kyrgyzstan,
citizen2005[at]yandex.ru

Nargis Zokirova,
Tajikistan
zokirova77 [at] mail.ru

Representative Names
in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
not disclosed

Lyudmila Burenkova,
technical editor,
lyuda [at] cjes.ru

Elena Dorokhova,
design,
inwork[at]frw.ru
Brothers forever?
Adil Dzhalilov (Almaty)
"Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, good neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between China and Kazakhstan have been developing rapidly."

"We are unanimous that the continuous strengthening of trust between China and Kazakhstan in the political sphere, the development of good-neighborly relations, friendship and cooperation on a solid long-term basis is in the common interest of the peoples of our two countries, and also benefits the security measures in the region."

These and other similar theses have traditionally been abundantly “watered” by the Chinese leader Hu Jintao’s visit to Kazakhstan - almost immediately after the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) summit in Bishkek.

Kazakh-Chinese friendship will develop as a result of this visit around state security, the fight against separatism, extremism, terrorism, drug trafficking, transnational crime. These spheres are more frequently mentioned as priority in relations between the two countries, first of all alerting the national minorities on both sides of the border. Astana and Beijing emphasize that security cooperation between the two countries is not directed against third countries. It's about internal issues. And separatism here is the key word, and the fight against it, “wrapped up” by good intentions to perpetuate terrorism, extremism, organized crime, drug trafficking, can result in a tightening of policies regarding, first of all, the Uyghurs. And if earlier it was mainly about the Uigurs of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (SUAR), now, after the well-known conflict between the Kazakh and Uigur youth in the village of Shelek, by default - and about the Kazakhstani Uygurs.

The fact that even in developed democratic countries good intentions in the field of combating terrorism develop into a wholesale violation of human rights has long been known. It’s scary to imagine what the Kazakh-Chinese friendship will lead in this area.

Of course, the meeting did not go without energy issues. The Chinese mega-economy needs ever-increasing amounts of oil, and Kazakhstan and Russia are becoming its indispensable source allies. At the same time, Kazakhstan is given the obvious role of the main barge haulier in solving the priority task for the People’s Republic of China in recent years - “mastering the Wild West” - raising the economy of the XUAR and expanding the titular ethnos there - hansu. It is Kazakhstan that supplies raw materials there - from oil to metals, and then buys finished products, fueling the Chinese economy with resources and currency.

Thus, during the visit of the PRC leader, several agreements were signed - on cooperation in the operation of the Atasu-Alashankou main oil pipeline, on cooperation in the construction and operation of the Kazakhstan-China gas pipeline, etc. But the largest, according to Nursultan Nazarbayev, is to build the second line of the pipeline Caspian Sea, as well as the construction of a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to China. These projects look almost like a demarche towards Russia and the West, pulling a significant part of Kazakhstan’s resources from world markets. In addition, the very fact of building the infrastructure in the eastern direction with a focus on virtually one buyer indicates that Kazakhstan is increasingly dependent on its giant neighbor economically and politically.

Of course, few people believe in cross-country friendships - both speechwriters writing speeches and press releases about it, and those who later voice voiced maxims about cooperation and other things, and oligarchs counting how much you can earn on “friendship”. Ordinary people, in any case, in Kazakhstan, have also not experienced illusions about superpragmatic neighbors for a long time, permanently seeing in all Chinese actions elements of expansion.

The model of the Kazakh-Chinese “friendship” in Aktobe looks quite illustrative, where the largest enterprise is the AktobeMunaiGaz, purchased by the Chinese oil and gas production. The local population earns several times less than Chinese employees - because of what there are conflicts here. Aktobe residents are also outraged by the active settlement of Chinese “brothers” in their city and are not at all inspired by the messages of the authorities of both countries about the importance of regional cooperation. According to some data, about 300 thousand Chinese live in Kazakhstan now, which is quite noticeable for 15 million people.

The intention of China to “take an active part in the creation of industrial and scientific parks” in Kazakhstan looks rather doubtful. Despite the fact that, according to official data from the PRC, over the years of cooperation, China’s investments in the economy of Kazakhstan amounted to about $ 8 billion, the innovative experience of the eastern neighbor causes at least wariness. The lack of an intellectual layer and, accordingly, technologies is the problem of both countries. In China, as a result of the cultural revolution, in Kazakhstan, as an echo of the active emigration of national minorities and the sluggishness of the educational system, which is lagging behind the pace of market development.

Returning to the topic of security, it is worth noting that the over-dependence of the Kazakh economy on the Chinese economy will grow and is hardly a guarantee of security. Practically all branches - from construction to oil, from textile to food - sit down on the "eastern needle".

In addition, it has long been known all over the world that the main causes of the emergence of terrorism are far from being only cunning and malicious. Class stratification, corruption, social inequality, lack of education - these are the key factors stimulating extremists. At the same time, the most effective measures against the radicals are preventive measures - the provision of the legal framework for self-expression, involvement in political life, training, enforcement of rights, etc.

reference: On November 18 last year, in the village of Shelek (Kazakhstan), a fight broke out between the Uighurs and the Kazakhs. On the second day after the mass brawl, in different parts of Shelek one could see large crowds of people. Groups of Kazakh youngsters engaged in a massacre in three cafes, where Uigur usually gathers. Part of the Kazakhs made a raid along Oktyabrskaya Street, beating up everyone who came their way. They did not touch women, old people and children and did not break into houses.

The largest clash took place at the intersection of Zhibek Zholy and Ismail Tairov streets, where more than 300 people participated on both sides. The police were clearly unable to cope with the angry mob. Only through the intervention of the elders of both diasporas was it possible to stop the bloodshed. But there were wounded who were taken home.

On November 19, the deputy head of the Department of Internal Affairs of the Almaty region, Colonel Meiram Ayubayev, arrived in Shelek. The akimat of the Shelek rural district again convened a meeting in connection with an emergency. On this day, a kind of curfew was imposed on Shelek, police posts were on duty on the streets, which stopped to check for rare passersby. The inhabitants, long before dusk, closed in their homes. During the week, the akimat met with a kind of headquarters of school principals, representatives of public associations, and the management of the police department. Emergency parent meetings were held in schools.

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