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№ 19 (63) October 2007
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THE AUTHORS
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Oleg Panfilov,
project Manager,
panfilov[at]cjes.ru

Dmitry Alyaev,
chief editor,
alyaev[at]cjes.ru

Roman Zyuzin,
webmaster,
webmaster [at] cjes.ru

Adil Dzhalilov,
Kazakhstan,
adild[at]list.ru

a diamond stylus,
Kyrgyzstan,
citizen2005[at]yandex.ru

Nargis Zokirova,
Tajikistan
zokirova77 [at] mail.ru

Representative Names
in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
not disclosed

Lyudmila Burenkova,
technical editor,
lyuda [at] cjes.ru

Elena Dorokhova,
design,
inwork[at]frw.ru
Ethno-religious communal
Joseph Omurbekov (Moscow), Janybaev (Jalalabad)
According to official statements in Kyrgyzstan, all religious dogmas have been granted free functioning and none of them are proclaimed as official or state religion. The current legislation of Kyrgyzstan guarantees every citizen the right to freedom of religion. But, at the same time, the authorities stipulate that religious organizations are prohibited from creating political parties and movements. It is because of this wording in the country that a number of religious organizations are banned, whose activity, according to the authorities, goes beyond the spiritual education of believers. The first in the black list of the state is the notorious religious party Hizb ut-Tahrir al Islami in the region. According to the authorities, acting underground, this party calls on everyone to build a “Caliphate” - a mono-religious state, and even from them, they are working hard to politicize Islam, they are constantly trying to organize pickets, rallies under the guise of protecting Islam or convicted persons for extremist activities . Any non-significant mistakes made by imams of mosques, kazy, theologians, members of the Council of Ulems of Muslims of Kyrgyzstan, muftiyat are in their hands. Such a categorical verdict was made by the authorities of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami in 2005. At the same time, the authorities admit that repressive measures alone cannot do here. This is what Zamir Sydykov, head of the press service of the Office of Internal Affairs for the city of Osh, says: “Hiding behind good intentions to live according to conscience, according to Sharia, they recruit poorly educated people into their ranks. As a rule, the “recruits” do not even have a secondary education, so there are four or five classes. We just discovered a new world for ourselves, including starting to re-learn Islam and Christianity. That rush from one to another. Democracy is not only freedom of action and speech, but also responsibility. Here we need to take an example from Kazakhstan. ”

The fact that Islam (as one of the main religious denominations in Kyrgyzstan) in the country has recently become a highly politicized fact is obvious. Today, only three groups are very active in the country: these are political parties, more precisely groups (because there are no classical political parties in Kyrgyzstan yet); religious organizations, both local and new, alien; and finally, criminal communities that became active after the Tulip Revolution. The authorities are expressing "soft" discontent with the political activity of the Muslim clergy. Zhanysh Kurbanov, Vice-Governor of the Jalalabat Oblast, in an interview with local radio station Azattyk, said that the books they publish and their policies sometimes are at odds with the country's Constitution.

Therefore, the clumsy attempts of the authorities and official clergy to identify and introduce the “right Islam” from their point of view have not yet been crowned with success, since the Muslim community of the state is actually divided into different spheres of influence of large Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey and Iran. Each of them pulls a blanket, opening theological schools or building mosques and madrasas to earn points.

Of course, one cannot overlook the fact that since the 1990s, Kyrgyzstan has faced a huge flow of foreign missionaries and religious organizations and sects. According to the state agency for religious affairs under the government of Kyrgyzstan in 1991, only thirty-nine mosques functioned in the country (however, there were a significant number of mosques operating without obtaining official status), twenty-five churches and parishes of the Russian Orthodox Church. To date, the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Kyrgyzstan, unites more than 1,725 ​​religious objects, and the Russian Orthodox Church, 46 churches and parishes, including a convent and an Orthodox parochial school. There are about 300 religious objects of the Christian direction, including: 2 religious organizations of the Orthodox direction (Old Believers), 3 Catholic communities, 292 religious objects of the Protestant direction. Since 1996, 1137 foreign missionaries from fifty-four countries of the world have been registered with the relevant state bodies.

The assurances of some European and Russian centers that Kyrgyzstan is practically divided along religious lines is, to say the least, not true. Their approval is based solely on the number of mosques and churches by region. According to them, the south is fully Islamized, and the north is Christianized. But the reality is that the new Christian movements and movements are more active in the south. In particular in the Jalalabat region, especially the Protestant currents and movements from Northern Europe and the United States. It is the activity of Protestants among the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz that causes the greatest criticism from the Muslim clergy and local residents. According to an unwritten rule between the local Muslim clergy and the Russian Orthodox Church, each of these religious denominations does not agitate among their original congregation. Thus, the Protestants violated this rule, which has been effective since the nineteenth century. Obsessive propaganda of Protestant ideas among the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz gave the opposite effect. In a number of villages in the Jalalabat and Osh oblasts, local residents demanded that some followers of Protestantism be evicted from among the local, threatening, if not, to mobilize them. Protestants, in turn, accuse the authorities of violating their right to freedom of conscience, referring to the country's Constitution.

Another special problem is students from Kyrgyzstan who study at theological and religious schools in Arab countries. According to. The State Agency for Religious Affairs under the government of Kyrgyzstan, students studying in foreign religious educational institutions and centers, sometimes return with fanatical views. Change their names, appearance. With their fanatical ideas in the understanding of religion, they create a certain tension in society. Most students are enrolled in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.

The activity of feminist organizations in Kyrgyzstan gave an impetus, oddly enough, to the emergence and development of women's organizations with a religious orientation. The most famous of them is “Mutakallim”, headed by Zhamal Frontbek Kyzy. This organization is fighting for the right to be photographed on official documents in hijabs (which, by the way, they succeeded). She also actively advocates the right of girls to wear the hijab in schools and universities. According to them, this "titanium" struggle with the authorities has lasted for more than three years. By the way, all these problems arise mainly in the Jalalabat region, currently the most politicized region in Kyrgyzstan. Let me remind you that the “tulip revolution” began exactly here. Proselitism (conversion to another faith) is also very active in the Jalalabat region.

On the second national, private television channel “Pyramid”, every day there is a Protestant sermon in the morning. Seeing such activity of new Christian missionaries, the Muslim clergy in Arab countries became more active. Besides the fact that they are actively reconstructing mosques around the country, the Saudi television channel Mecca has now decided to broadcast to countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States with the translation of its programs into Russian to promote the ideas of Islam and the Arabic language, as stated in the official press release distributed in the global network.

Joseph Omurbekov (OSH)

* * *

According to official statistics, representatives of one hundred nationalities live in Kyrgyzstan. Perhaps this is the most popular characteristic that is most often used to show the “ethnic paradise” in Kyrgyzstan. Probably, this practice has remained since Soviet times, when dictionaries wrote “People of more than a hundred nationalities live in the USSR” and also wrote in republican reference books. The most conscientious reduced this number to eighty. For some reason, it is considered that the more different nations and nationalities in your country, the better the ethnic index of this state. And it does not matter at the same time that almost half of the nationalities and nationalities are left, almost one representative each. That is, “ethnic paradise” is indicated by quantity, not quality.

To build an “ethnic paradise” in Kyrgyzstan is entrusted to the Assembly of Peoples of Kyrgyzstan. The effectiveness of the activity, which causes a lot of questions. Throughout the sixteen years of independence, the Assembly of the Peoples of Kyrgyzstan was actively “attracted” only to elections, in order to get the necessary results in elections, speculating on ethnic relations. From time to time they also arranged concerts where children are not ethnic Kyrgyz, distorted words, sang songs in the Kyrgyz language without any interest or feelings on their faces. Thus, the Assembly’s leadership showed that everything was in a good mood, despite serious problems in this area. Many national-cultural centers are unhappy with the policies of the Assembly. The head of the Uzbek National Cultural Center, Ulugbek Abdusalomov, says that in the local regional branch of the Assembly a selective approach to membership exists, pushing various organizations together. Thus, according to him, the Uzbek National Cultural Center was unilaterally expelled from the members of the Assembly, and in its place a new public association of ethnic Uzbeks "Davr" was adopted. This situation is very typical for Kyrgyzstan, because it is not unique.

According to the data provided by Omurbek Kurmankulov, the acting head of the Jalalabat Department of Statistics, about a million people live in the region, of which 71.2% are Kyrgyz, 24.7% are Uzbeks and Russians are 1.1%. In addition to the three major ethnic groups, there are twenty-three small national groups. According to the Jalalabad branch of the Assembly of Peoples of Kyrgyzstan, 41 nationalities live in the region. But, according to the head of the regional branch of the Assembly with the speaking name and surname of Kyrgyz Bakiyev, only nine national centers and organizations passed registration. These are public associations: “Slavic diaspora”, “Arzu” (Uigur), “Yalkyn” (Tatar-Bashkir), “Nadezhda” (German), “Turk-Ata”, “Davr” (Uzbek). The main purpose of the existence of these public associations and centers of national minorities, according to Kyrgyz Bakiyev, is to preserve their own culture, language and identity. He is echoed by Irina Cholponova, the head of the German national-cultural and charity center "Hope". “We are first engaged in the revival of German culture here, learning the German language. The Goethe Institute in Germany helps us a lot with this. They support those who want to learn German language and culture, ”says Irina Cholponova. However, this is a common practice when the entire role of national cultural centers comes down solely to dancing, language courses and folklore. For example, the Slavic and German national centers are practically a continuation of the migration departments of the embassies of Russia and Germany. Because there is the main question, how and when, to leave for their historic homeland. Only public associations of ethnic Uzbeks and Russians are more or less politicized. The rest are busy preserving culture and language.

Preservation of the national language, the ability to speak it, study, get a higher education is one of the fundamental rights, representatives of national minorities consider. According to the Jalalabat Education Board, there are 370 secondary schools in the region, of which with the Kyrgyz language of instruction are three hundred seventeen, with the Uzbek language of instruction - forty-four and with the Russian language of instruction - nine schools. Of the total, there are still eighty-seven mixed schools with Kyrgyz, Russian and Uzbek languages ​​of instruction. According to the regional department of education, the equipment of schools with textbooks is almost one hundred percent. Thus, in Uzbek-language schools, the availability of textbooks is 78%, in Russian-language schools - 82%. But this medal has another side.

The main problem of Uzbek-teaching schools is the cultural isolation from Uzbekistan, which is complicated by the fact that in the neighboring country the alphabet is in Latin, and in Kyrgyzstan the Uzbek language exists in Cyrillic. The same problem exists with schools with the Kyrgyz language of instruction in Uzbekistan, representatives of the community “Uzbeks of Kyrgyzstan” believe. Cultural, pedagogical contacts at the institute-school level are almost completely absent. At the same time, according to Osh teachers, in Uzbek-teaching schools, the hours of teaching Uzbek as a native language have sharply reduced recently. Practically, according to the teachers, his role is reduced to a foreign language, which, in their opinion, is unfair. According to the head of the Uzbek National Cultural Center Ulugbek Abdusalomov, the sensational rally in Jalalabat was mainly dictated by the alarm about the fate of the Uzbek language in Kyrgyzstan.

The Kyrgyz language is the stumbling block in relations between the Kyrgyz and other ethnic groups that live in the country. More precisely, not language, but methods of its introduction into the system of secondary and higher education. The clumsy introduction of the Kyrgyz language only strengthens the protest mood among people of non-Kyrgyz nationalities. The noble idea of ​​raising the role and place of the Kyrgyz language can easily “drown” in the quagmire of recriminations and accusations. The zeal with which they “infuse the masses” of the Kyrgyz language is alarming to all. Even State Secretary of Kyrgyzstan Adakham Madumarov warned the patriotic patriots of such steps that prevent other ethnic groups from learning and knowing the Kyrgyz language.

The whole problem of the ethnic situation in Kyrgyzstan, according to the head of the public association “Slavic Diaspora” Valery Uleyev, is the absence of a national program for the ethnic development of the country. Because it is impossible, according to him, to arrange friendship of the people in Kyrgyzstan only on songs and dances. “It is necessary to create a certain state body where representatives of each nationality would enter and all together would solve their problems, telling others about them. Also, it is necessary that there is control by the government to respect the rights of all ethnic groups without exception. To all were equal. Then there will be no omissions between people, national groups, ”says Valery Uleyev. In the same context, the head of the Uzbek National Cultural Center Ulugbek Abdusalomov, who believes that it is necessary to create a certain state committee or agency on ethnic issues, was expressed.

Kyrgyzstan, due to the caustic comments of Akaev opponents, thanks to this doctrine, then turned into the state version of a “soviet” hostel with all the problems arising from this.

I wish Janybaev (Jalalabad)
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