Despite the efforts of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan to address gender issues, this issue is still acute and, as yet, the priority in most areas of society is men. This is evidenced by the number of ministers, deputies and other leaders standing on top of state power.
According to analysts, many women today do not go into politics, not because the law does not allow them, but, most likely, because it is not typical of the mentality of the population of the region. Men believe that the place of a woman is at home, she should bring up children, and not engage in politics. The most serious obstacle to the participation of women in political life is the perception in the country of the secondary role of women in society. This became especially “fashionable” in Tajikistan after the civil war. Some attribute this to the fact that it was from that period that a sharp decline in literacy among the rural population, especially girls, began, a trend that is still being observed.
With the independence of the Government of Tajikistan, quite a few important documents were adopted to address the problem of gender inequality and enhance the status of women in society. Thus, in 1993, the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was ratified. In 1999, the Decree of the President “On measures to enhance the role of women in society” was adopted to execute these documents. Later, the National Action Plan for the Advancement of the Status and the Role of Women for 1998–2005 and the State Program Basic Guidelines of State Policy to Ensure Equal Rights and Opportunities for Men and Women in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2001-2010 were approved. In 2005, the country's parliament adopted the law “On state guarantees of equal rights for men and women and equal opportunities for their realization”.
Although under the law today women in Tajikistan have the same rights as men, and at the level of legislation there are no restrictions and discrimination against the sex, according to analysts, there are big problems in realizing these rights and opportunities for women to participate in the political life of society .
According to the chairman of the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, Muhiddin Kabiri, the very political culture of Tajikistan in particular and the post-Soviet period as a whole interferes with this. He says that the lack of democracy prevents not only women but also men from realizing their political rights. “When citizens in general, both men and women, do not have the opportunity to fully participate in the political life of the country, in such cases it is women who are more vulnerable. Many of them refer to our mentality, culture, traditions, including religious ones, allegedly in Islamic society the active participation of women in political life is not encouraged. In fact, this is not the case. ”
According to Kabiri, religion is far more widespread than many people think. This is a false view that the role of women should be limited only within the framework of the family and upbringing of children. During the life of the Prophet Muhammad himself, women were so active that they even participated in the battles. They helped to conduct public affairs. The wife of the Prophet Oisha was a public figure, a counselor of the prophet. Women, like men, went to the mosque. Unfortunately, today, in the name of religion, we prohibit women from going to the mosque and exercising their religious rights. "I think that there is more politics and national traditions than religion itself."
Women's participation in the political life of the country depends on the initiative of women themselves, according to Inomova Dilrabo, executive director of the public association of the group on social development.
“The weak level of consciousness of our women does not give them confidence in themselves that they can cope with the responsibilities of a leader or participate in the political life of the country. This is our stigma. In fact, world practice shows that the business qualities of a woman completely allow her to compete with almost any man-politician. In this situation, everything depends not on gender, but, rather, on personal qualities - intelligence, leadership skills, tough managerial acumen.
Women’s awareness of their own importance, social independence, desire and ability to realize their civil rights and obligations, as well as the efforts of state and non-governmental structures in creating favorable conditions for this, will contribute to achieving gender balance in society, ”she said.
“We are used to putting family on the first place, and only then work. If husbands give their wives the opportunity to act as leaders and activists, then this problem will not be as obvious as it is now, ”concluded Inomova.
According to Saodat, who works at the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, the policy of the country's leadership to strengthen the role of women in society has not yet yielded serious results. Yes, undoubtedly, today there are women in every oblast, in the districts - the vice-chairmen of the hukumat, but they do not decide anything, nothing depends on them in the region they supervise. That is, they work formally. In most cases, they do the work that is assigned to them by the leaders of the man. Saodat believes that only the state can solve many problems existing in the implementation of women's opportunities in society. And they will be solved together with an increase in the number of women in government posts. The more women work this way, the more stable our state will be. If not all, then half of the ministerial posts should be held by women, half of the seats in parliament should also be held by women, and the state should regulate this situation.
Commenting on this opinion, Muhiddin Kabiri noted that the limited representation of women in the governing bodies of political organizations is not due to the desire to infringe their rights, but to the objectively low level of political identity and culture: “60% of the members of the Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan are women, but unfortunately There are only three women in the presidium. However, this does not mean that the party leadership does not want to see women in leading positions, simply the level of their political identity, not only in our party, but also in society as a whole, today is quite low. This prevents them from taking a leading position. ”
A member of the lower house of parliament, Gallia Rabieva, is in solidarity with this position. She notes that at the level of legislative prescriptions, no discriminatory provisions in relation to women in the republic have been established; nevertheless, in real life there is a gap between legal and de facto equality of men and women.
Numerous studies conducted in many countries of the world confirm that it is impossible to solve the most pressing problems of our time without the participation of women. In almost all countries where women come to power, they argue that the “weaker sex” currently has its own social interests related to the real situation of women in society. In any approach, in any decision that is taken in the state, the points of view of both socio-legal groups should be taken into account.
However, women are still poorly represented at all levels of decision-making, their experience and skills are still not sufficiently in demand at the managerial level. If among the civil servants of Tajikistan women today make up 24%, then in responsible government positions - 15%, and among the heads of state bodies only 7%. Women predominantly occupy positions of the second, and more often of the third plan, connected with executive and technical functions.
Today in the republic, according to the Ministry of Education, the number of girls aged 16 to 17 years attending the last two classes of general education schools has decreased by 12% compared with the 1991 figures. One of the reasons for not wanting to let girls go to school is that women’s education is an undesirable factor for marriage. An educated woman is unlikely to become a resigned housewife.
At the beginning of the 2005-2006 school year, girls made up 46% in secondary schools, and 32% in higher and secondary specialized educational institutions. Now special measures are being taken in the country to provide opportunities for continuing education in higher and secondary vocational schools for girls from mountainous and remote areas. Since May 1997, a presidential quota for admission to universities without entrance examinations has been established for them. Over the past years, 4440 girls were sent to different universities of the country according to such a quota. For 2006-2010 The quota for admission to universities for girls and boys from such locations has been doubled - up to 1000 places per year. In addition, since November 2005, 16 presidential scholarships have been established for distinguished girls in the quota.
However, entering a university implies high costs of living in a city and perspectives for future employment that are rather dubious for women.
Among the factors hindering the expansion of the socio-political activities of the fair sex, some analysts say the traditionally established stereotype of a Muslim woman dependent on a man. For thousands of years we have developed a patriarchal attitude towards a woman, that is, a woman is like an object of power, and a man is a subject and he is the head of the family.
According to Sanovbar, the head of one of the NGOs in Dushanbe, the role of women in today's society is growing and if this trend continues, society will only benefit. “It is very important that more women be employed in senior positions. Their presence brings softness and stability to the management process, pushing the tough decisions of men and making life processes, both in the economy and in politics, more humane, ”she said.
However, only a competent and enlightened woman can claim a decent role in society. And in Tajikistan, the number of women receiving education is rapidly falling and one has only to be fed up that all those decrees and decisions taken by the government to raise the status of women will not remain only on paper, but will be a real step towards increasing the role of women in future society.