60% of the working-age population of Kyrgyzstan go abroad to earn money. About half of them are women. Kymbat recently legalized its stay in Novosibirsk: “I have been working in Russia for several years. Already received Russian citizenship. But the problem is that my child is not a citizen of Russia. ”
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, many women faced a problem: how to feed a family, children. Kymbat is an economist by training, she divorced her husband in the distant 90s. One brings up a daughter: “I worked in social protection. There was not enough money. You buy food, clothes do not remain and vice versa. In the arms of a small child. I look at other women, they rush, go to Russia and Kazakhstan to work. I think the worse I am losing. I went to Novosibirsk. ”
Akylbek Tashbaev, the director of the school-gymnasium №17 named after Yu.A.Gagarin, understands the reasons for labor migration: “As long as our government does not raise wages, people still do not have enough money to live. This is a real fight afford. People migrate to Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan not from a good life. As long as there is no normal earnings in the country, the number of migrants will not decrease. ”
The exact number of migrants is unknown. According to Akat Momunov, chairman of the Osh Regional Committee on Migration and Employment, they tried to count people in places of departure (stations), but this did not produce results. “There is no account. We know the number of registered, legal migrants, ”and said:“ Last year we conducted a household survey. We found out that in the region (excluding the city of Osh) 83 thousand migrants are in Russia and Kazakhstan. Last year, 4,500 citizens left the region for Kazakhstan. This is only the number of officially sent people. According to unofficial data, about 8 thousand. "
While Kymbat was settling down in Novosibirsk, her daughter Meerim lived with her grandmother in her village. Kymbat sometimes came to Osh, bought an apartment and settled close relatives there. “I told them so that they would live, but let my Meerimka live with them too and go to the city school.”
In 1998, in the first class, the girl went to study at high school number 4. Meerim says: “Without mom's bad. Communicated only by phone. Every evening I sat and hypnotized him: when mom calls. ”
Kymbat says that the daughter constantly asked her: “She’s crying on the phone:“ Take me, Mommy! ”Where? I live in a rented apartment. We are such five adults. I trade all day on the market. ”
But Kymbat nevertheless decided to take the child with her. In the 6th grade, Meerim went to the Novosibirsk school. Here she realized that she was too different from everyone in the class. “From the first day I was told:“ You are not Russian, your eyes are black, your hair is black ”. I had to explain to everyone that I was Kyrgyz, from Kyrgyzstan. ”
A few years later it was time to get a passport of the Russian Federation. There was a problem. “I'm to blame,” says Kymbat. - “In time I did not write down my daughter in the list of leaving at home. Therefore, my daughter could not get a Russian passport. ”
In addition, the lack of normal living conditions began to affect the behavior of her daughter. The woman judged: “There is no apartment in Novosibirsk, in Osh there is a three-room apartment in the center of the city. I think, let him come back and finish school in Osh. ”
Meerim had to return to Osh. She went to grade 10 of the same school where she once studied. The girl cheerfully says: “The director, a kind woman, looked at my certificate. I have good grades. She immediately took me to the class where I studied. True, many students left, had to meet again. "
Now the girl lives with close relatives, but most of the time is left to herself. She learns to plan her budget, she solves her teenage problems. “At school it’s normal, only there are difficulties with the Kyrgyz language. I have not forgotten him, I freely speak, but I don’t know the grammar well, ”the girl sighs.
Meerim was used to change, but could not get used to separation from her mother, who was leaving for Novosibirsk again. A family of two separated the boundaries. Now mother and daughter are citizens of different states.
Nargiza Yeshtayeva, head of the non-governmental organization “Ayalzat”, believes that the problem of separation of parents from children negatively affects the latter. “Parents can help a child, for example, the father is like a friend, the mother is a friend. Sometimes children stay with older grandparents. But older people themselves need help. They can not always keep track of the child. "
But it happens that both parents are on earnings. 12-year-old Ainura has not seen her father and mother for several years. They work in Russia. The girl lives alternately with some relatives, then with others. Uncle had a nanny of two boys, then a girl was born there. Ainura did not sleep at night, rocking Lyalka. Happy walking brothers. After lunch she ran to school. I studied moderately, I did not have enough time for lessons. “I don’t really like school,” says the girl. “The teachers give bad grades. School uniform required. When the brothers are sick, I sit at home with them, they scold me at school for passes. ”
After some time, the uncle's children grew up, went to kindergarten. Ainuru took aunt. And my aunt needs a nanny - a small child. History repeats itself, with the only difference that the aunt is more affluent. Ainura is decently dressed, full, more free time. “Aunt is better,” smiles Ainura, “Just one child.”
Ainura is waiting for her to grow up and become an adult. “I will go to my mom and dad in Russia. All my brothers and sisters live and work there. I really want to live with them. ”
As a school director, Akylbek Tashbaev is worried: “For example, in our school the number of children whose parents went to work earned up to 20%. Sometimes one of the parents is missing, sometimes both are on earnings. This situation raises concerns. As a rule, such children are in school without appropriate uniforms. Sometimes, they are late, they have lower academic performance. They often become offenders. Which of these do not ask “Where are your parents?”, One answer: “Left for work”.
Senior inspector of the Department of Public Order of Osh Mamat Bektemirov cites the following figures: "50% of offenders are the guys whose parents are away."
“This is the other side of the coin,” agrees Nargiza Yeshtaeva. “Parents send money, everything is fine. A child can go the other way. Will try once drugs, alcohol, he may like. Why? There is money, there is freedom. Children are starting to act willfully. When you realize that today's youth, this is our future tomorrow, it becomes a little scary. After all, children are being left even to strangers, neighbors. A stranger will never replace the native. It will not be thoroughly interested in how things are going at school. And then the society asks the question: where do the hooligans come from? Society grows out of the family. Everything comes from home. What will be the education, it will be a society. If we want to change society, we must start with the family. ”
If the family, most of the time is occupied with their own cares, who will be engaged in raising children?
Akylbek Tashbaev notes that in their school the burden of raising such children is shifted to class teachers: “I begin to demand from them. I would give all the class leaders monuments for their work. Both at school and after school they try for children. ”