After more than a hundred years, Russian border guards are leaving the banks of the Pyanj River, in the south of the country. From now on, the entire border line with Afghanistan passes under the control of the Tajik border guards.
To date, the Moscow frontier detachment, 232 km long, has been completely transferred under the protection of the State Border Protection Committee by the Russian military. and Badakhshan direction - about 1 thousand km According to bilateral agreements signed during the visit to Dushanbe by Vladimir Putin, the head of the Russian Federation and Emomali Rakhmonov, the President of Tajikistan, from October 2004 to September 1, 2005, the Tajik military will receive under protection the Pyanj frontier detachment in the south of the country and at the end of the year Dushanbe garrison. Thus, in 2006 the Republic of Tajikistan will meet on its own, protecting its borders.
With the declaration of the sovereignty of Tajikistan, the state frontiers of this republic were protected by the border troops of the Russian Federation. Due to the unstable situation inside the republic, 1992-1997, the border troops of the former Soviet Union were not withdrawn from there, and in August 1992 the border group of the Federal Border Service (PG of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation) was officially established. And in May 1993, Russia and Tajikistan signed an agreement, on the basis of which the Federal Border Service was given the authority to defend the Tajik border.
“The border group of Russia,” according to the head of the press service of the Federal Border Guard Service of the Russian Federation in Tajikistan, Alexander Kondratyev, was one of the most unique of its kind. The size of the Group is over 10 thousand people, 60% of whom are citizens of Tajikistan. About 99% of conscripts of military service, and 70% of contract servicemen are also representatives of local nationalities. ”
According to Kondratyev, for the entire time that the border guards of Russia were fulfilling their task, about 30 tons of drugs were seized, 10 tons of which are heroin. None of the power ministries of the former USSR have such indicators.
In his opinion, the main factor ensuring reliable protection of the border is the best quality, material, technical equipment and monetary allowances of the border guards. “All the cargoes delivered here, such as fuels and lubricants, firewood, coal, weapons and spare parts, become more expensive than gold,” he notes. In addition, according to Kondratieff, the PG has a high enough competition for draftees. As a conscript soldier earns 1,800 rubles (about $ 60) in the NG, which is not at all small for a country where the official salary is 20-30 dollars.
Major O. Rakhimov, an employee of the Moscow military registration and enlistment office, confirms this fact. “Almost all recruits who came to us voluntarily expressed a desire to serve in the IG of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation in Tajikistan, because they know about a significant monetary allowance and acceptable diet.”
“Apparently, Tajik border guards will try to copy us. But it is doubtful that the government of the country could organize a similar system to provide fuel, food, ammunition, timely repair of equipment and replacement with more advanced types of weapons. The FGP PG system in Tajikistan has been improving for decades, and it is impossible to imagine replacing this mechanism with another. I think that for some time the military KOGG will be stretched out on the stocks of the Federal Border Guard Service of the Russian Federation, and then what? ”, Says Sergey Ilyinkov, a border guard sergeant who was urgent in the Frontier Guards of Russia.
Close to the embrasure, formed as a result of the withdrawal of the Russian units, is supposedly one of the best human resources of Tajikistan, Colonel-General Saidamir Zuhurov. A cadre officer who passed through the KGB school, who headed the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tajikistan in the past, looks at the matter assigned to him calmly and objectively. He does not think that he should be particularly worried about border security:
“It is possible that we are inferior to the border guards of the Russian Federation in terms of military personnel and technical equipment, for example, we don’t have aircraft. But we will decide questions of mobility, coverage of border areas - there are concrete ideas for that. As for the statements that with the transfer of the border under the control of the COGG of Tajikistan, drug traffic will increase sharply here, I think that this will not happen, ”Zukhurov notes.
In addition, according to him, the number of his Committee is planned to increase by 2 thousand people, which will help create a sufficiently reliable barrier to the drug trafficking and extremism from Afghanistan.
The weakest point of KOGG, according to Zukhurov, is insufficient financing of its department, weak material allowance for KOGG staff. The soldier conscript earns about 70 cents, and the salary of officers is 30 dollars. In the future, Zukhurov intends to introduce service under the contract, and to eradicate the corruption of border guards by raising salaries.
Meanwhile, KOGG is already in trouble. In the meantime, while the border guards were engaged in the reception and transfer of the Moscow frontier detachment, the KOGG press center informed the public that a number of commanders of units and subunits were dismissed as a result of the check on the combat capability of the outposts of the Committee.
According to the head of the KOGG press center, Abdusatorr Gullokhmadov, the KOGG commander demanded that most of the problems with regard to the provision of postal and telephone services, food and clothing, fuel and lubricants, and the state of checkpoints should be solved.
It is obvious that Dushanbe is trying to force the events, because the republic is preparing to execute it in a year with a hook that demanded a decade of gradual transition. Hopes for the improvement and training of combat units KOGG assigned to foreign financial assistance.
According to Almaz Sayfiddinov, media assistant at the US Embassy in Tajikistan, since 2002, the US government has provided assistance worth more than $ 13 million to secure borders and combat drug smuggling.
Recently, the German government, through its embassy in Dushanbe, stated that Tajikistan is now within the purview of the Germans. One of the proofs of this statement was the allocation of financial assistance in the amount of $ 55 thousand, which will be aimed at providing high-quality communications.
However, according to earlier statements, after the complete transfer of the Tajik-Afghan border, KOGG needs $ 101 million for technical equipment and arrangement of its southern borders. And not by phased translations, but wholly and preferably as soon as possible. The allocated funds are hardly enough for decent functioning of the frontier on such a hot frontier as the Tajik-Afghan border.
But today the situation is such that the Government of Tajikistan is not able to provide full funding, and therefore protection of the country's borders, and Western countries are not in a hurry to take 100% funding to create a well-armed state border guard system. Moreover, even if the international community will help Tajik border guards guard the border, who will assist the thousands of residents of the border areas who either served in the ranks of the Russian border troops or otherwise earned their living from the presence of this group of Russian border guards. In addition, the Russian border guards helped to solve social problems in these regions, and with their departure, this opportunity is now also lost.